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SCHIELE 






Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum Library and Archives 



http://www.archive.org/details/gustavklimtegonsOOmess 



GLSTAV RLIMT 

mi 

EGIN SC II1ELE 



THE SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM, NEW YORK 



Published by The Solomon R.Guggenheim Foundation, Neiv York, 1965 — All Rights Reserved — Library of Congress Card Catalogue Number 65 — 16678 

Printed in Austria 



THK SOI.OMOX R. GUGGENHEIM FOUNDATION 



TRUSTEES 



HARRY E. GUGGENHEIM, PRESIDENT 



ALBERT E.THIELE, VICE PRESIDENT 



H. H. ARNASON, VICE PRESIDENT, ART ADMINISTRATION 



ELEANOR, COUNTESS CASTLE STEWART 



DANA DRAPER 



PETER O. LAWSON-.TOHNSTON 



A. CHAUNCEY NEWLIN 



MRS. HENRY OBRE 



DANIEL CATTON RICH 



MICHAEL P.WETTACH 



MEDLEY G. B. WHELPLEY 



CARL ZIGROSSER 



1 \IITi; llilHT THE i:\illltlTISI\ 



Gustav Klimt has never had a significant one-man exhibition in an American 
museum. Egon Schiele was seen importantly in American museums only once 
when Boston's Institute of Contemporary Art presented a one-man show which 
subsequently travelled during the season of 1960 — 61. The current effort which 
groups together the two Austrian masters is by far the most ambitious among 
contemporary presentations. 

Works by the younger Schiele were borrowed from sources throughout the world 
and only a few refusals of importance have been sustained. With the massive 
help of private and public collections in Austria, the United States and in other 
countries, the Schiele retrospective is made up of major works from all periods. 
Klimt too is shown through kev works but not in comparable fullness. This 
limitation is, in part, enforced by external conditions and partly arrived at through 
deliberate decision. Some owners of important works felt obliged to decline our 
requests for Klimt's paintings for fear that the frail and vulnerable canvases of 
the Art Nouveau master would suffer through a transatlantic shipment. It was 
by choice, however, that Klimt is here presented substantially only through works 
dated after 1900 and that no effort was made to gather his earlier work. Revealing 
as such inclusions would have been, a selection so conceived would have favored 
an historic rather than an esthetic point of view. This would have been contrary 
to our intentions. 

Consideration has also been given to a more comprehensive showing of Austrian 
art that might have included the still shadowy figure of Richard Gerstl. and 
above all, Oscar Kokoschka, the third and most famous member of the Austrian 
triad. This concept was abandoned, however, because Kokoschka might well 
become the subject of a full retrospective one-man exhibition at a future date. 
It is therefore the distinct but related art of Gustav Klimt and of Egon Schiele — the 
former seen primarily through his late work, the latter retrospectively, and both 
through their drawings as well as their paintings — that is presented here to the 
American public through a single showing at The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. 

Thomas M. Messer, Director 



imnwmiiiui 



This exhibition and tiie preparation for the accompanying catalogue have been in the 
making for the past four rears. The many inherent difficulties could be overcome 
only because the initiatory effort of the Guggenheim Museum received the full and 
generous cooperation of government and museum officials, scholars, collectors, and 
dealers in Austria, the United States, and in a number of other countries. 
Central to this effort was the unstinting help given by Professor Dr. Fritz Novotny, 
Director of the Osterreichische Galerie in I ienna, who was first to commit a number 
of important works from his Museum's permanent collection and who persuaded some 
of the most important Austrian Klimt and Schiele collectors to support the Guggenheim 
Museum's exhibition through loans of great importance. Through its staff, the Oster- 
reichische Galerie. with the extensive aid of Dr. Klaus Demus, also acted as an Austrian 
gathering point arid arranged for the punctual arrival of previously selected ivorks. 
As the following lenders' list indicates, other Austrian museums, through their directors 
and staffs, seconded the support initially received through generous loan arrangements 
and through a variety of helpful acts. The same may be said of galleries and individual 
lenders in Vienna and in other parts of the Austrian Republic. Among these, the 
participation of the Klimt oivner Mrs. Marietta Preleuthner, the Schiele specialist 
Dr. Rudolf Leopold, and of Mr. and Mrs. I iktor Fogarassy, who have assembled 
the most extensive private collection of the two Austrian masters must be specially 
noted, if only because their combined participation supplementing museum loans 
assured a desirably broad basis for the exhibition, hi addition to those here mentioned 
or subsequently listed, the anonymous but decisive aid of the Austrian Ministry of 
Education is herewith most gratefully acknowledged. 

In this country, interest in Klimt and Schiele has been consistently furthered through 
the pioneering efforts of the Galerie St. Etienne in Neiv York. Its director, Dr. Otto 
Kallir, has not only contributed works by both artists from his own collection and 
that of the Galerie. but also has made available to the Guggenheim Museum records 
without which some ivorks of primary importance could not have been located or 
obtained. 

Outside of Austria and the United States, sizeable loan contributions have been obtained 
from the Narodni Galerie in Prague and through Marlborough Fine Art Ltd. in London 
who have graciously assisted us in the preparation of some color plates. 
A thorough documentation could not have been secured for this catalogue without the 
specialized knowledge of Klimt and Schiele scholars. Our thanks, in this respect, must 
first go to Dr. Johannes Dobai, Zurich, who contributed relevant portions from the 
documentary section of his as ret unpublished Gustav Klimt. An analogous service 
for the Schiele documentation has been performed by Dr. Otto Kallir who, under the 
name of Otto Nirenstein, had published in 1930 the first catalogue raisonnee of Schiele's 
paintings from ivhose pages we quoted at will. Material due to be published in an 
updated and English version was also placed at our disposal by the author. The lenders 
themselves, and notably Professor Dr. Fritz Novotny have cooperated by furnishing 
valuable information relating to ivorks in their possession. Finally, the documentation 
of the catalogue was enriched by Miss Sandra Comini who engaged in a recent and 
fruitful search for new clues on Schiele. Miss Comini allowed me to read her unpublished 
thesis Egon Schiele, The Artist's Vision of Himself and to incorporate in various 
parts of this catalogue such findings as seemed pertinent to our purposes. Also, 
catalogue essays have been written by Dr. Johannes Dobai, Miss Sandra Comini 
ami Professor James T. Demetrion, Curator of the Pasadena Art Museum. 
Dr. Dobai's essay on Klimt is rendered here in the carefully considered translation 
of Dr. Avram Kampf and Miss Winifred Mason. 

I lastly wish to acknowledge the most diligent efforts of this Museum's staff and 
particularly the extensive editorial and research ivork contributed toward the exhibition 
and the catalogue by Dr. Louise Averill Svendsen, Associate Curator, and by Miss 
Linda Konheim. 

T. M. M. 



u:\iiiiss in tin: i:\uimiu\ 



Federica Beer-Monti, Neiv York and Vienna 
Ludwig Blau, Vienna 

Dr. and Mrs. Ferdinand Eckhardt, Winnipeg 
I ictor Fogarassy, Graz, Austria 
Dollie Fogarassy, Graz, Austria 
Dr. Albert W. Grokoest, New York 
Victor Gruen, Beverly Hills. California 
Dr. and Mrs. Otto Kallir, Neiv York 
Eberhard W . Kornfeld, Bern. Switzerland 
Dr. Rudolf Leopold, Vienna 
Mr. and Mrs. Frederick Mayer, New York 
Mrs. Andre Mertens, U estport, Connecticut 
Christian M. Nebehay, Vienna 
S. & G. Poppe, Hamburg 
Mrs. Marietta Preleuthner. Vienna 
Mr. and Mrs. Serge S. Sabarsky, Neiv York- 
Mrs. Ala Story. Santa Barbara. California 
Mr. and Mrs. Donald S. Stralem, Neiv York- 
Fogg Art Museum. Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 
Neue Galerie am Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz, Austria 
Gemeente Museum, The Hague 

The Minneapolis Institute of Fine Arts, Minneapolis 
The Museum of Modern Art, New York 
Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh 
Ndrodni Galerie, Prague 
Graphische Sammlung Albertina, I ienna 
llistorisches Museum der Stadt Wien, Vienna 
Niederosterreichisches Landesmuseum , I ienna 
Osterreichische Galerie, Vienna 
Osterreichisch.es Museum der Stailt H ien. I ienna 
Osterreichisches Museum fiir Angewandte Kunst, I ienna 

Marlborough Fine Art, Ltd., London 
Marlborough-Gerson Gallery, New York 
Galerie St. Etienne, Neiv York 
Galerie (I iirthle, Vienna 



10 



mm RLIMT Ull EGOS SrillELE 



THOMAS M. MESSER 



GUSTAV KLIMT, more than one hundred years after his birth, is little known outside 
his native Austria, and therefore one hesitates to speak of rediscovery where discovery 
in a general sense has never taken place. His work, however, seemingly old-fashioned 
a generation ago, has moved toward the center of modern perception. This has 
happened not only because of the vital content of Klimt "s drawing and painting, 
but also because of a readjustment of our critical sensibilities in recent years. Klimt 
stood outside of our held of vision apparently because we failed to look, or at least, 
because we were incapable of seeing while our attention was focused in other directions. 
During the first half of our century, when Klimt went largely unnoticed, we were 
situated within a range of glaring lights that delighted and totally absorbed our 
vision. Thus it is not surprising that our averted faces could not be mirrored in the 
faintly shimmering surfaces of Klimt's subtle art. 

EGON SCHIELE, first Klimt"s pupil and disciple, then contender for Klimt's primacy 
among Austrian artists, was renounced for altogether different reasons. Although, 
during the ten brief years of his creative maturity — from 1908 to 1918 — he did not 
follow a mainstream which at that time pointed clearly toward non-objective 
abstraction, Schiele partook of the visual insights that marked this most radical 
of modern decades and was nourished by the great precursors of modern art. His 
draftsmanship and psychological actireness recall a similar combination of qualities 
in Toulouse-Lautrec. Schiele shares with Van Gogh a great emotional fervor that 
is lodged in forms relatable to common vision. His color scheme indicates the 
impact made upon him by Matisse and the Fauves" and lastly, the prominent 
Swiss master Ferdinand Hodler exerted a clearly traceable influence upon the 
young Austrian. Consequently it is not, as with Klimt, a lack of ready identification 
with modernism that caused Schiele's art to remain distant. Rather, it would seem, is 
it the very intensity of his painting and drawing, his brutal evocations of realities too 
unwelcome to be admitted, that made us turn away in an effort to avoid or at least 
postpone a painful encounter. If Schiele remains "difficult'" and "disagreeable" to 
this day, this is because he relentlessly projects an aspect of reality through means 
that increase rather than absorb the shock of confrontation. In this respect, he goes 
further than his German contemporaries, the Expressionists, and can be likened 
only to a later generation of artists — painters like Jean Dubuffet and Francis 
Bacon — who by their refusal to mitigate the anguished content of their art divest their 
forms of engaging attributes. 

KTIMT and SCHIELE were not, nor are they today, an evenly matched pair. 
Nevertheless, there is a complementary relationship in their personalities and in 
their respective work that makes the contribution of each more meaningful when 
both are seen and considered together. 



II 



The differences in the two personalities and in their artistic legacies are conspicuous: 
almost thirty years Schiele's senior, Klimt leaves a biography so hare of external 
events that an attempt to record it leads to an enumeration of trivia. Records about 
his life are few and uninformative. Even the public quarrels which he could not 
avoid as the undisputed spokesman and ranking painter of the Viennese avant-garde, 
do not bring him closer in human terms. Nothing pierces the deliberate veil of 
anonymity that protected his private life from the threatened incursions of the 
outside world. 1 He arranged his life to stand apart from his art and it thus fails 
to provide a key to a better understanding of his work. By contrast, Schiele's life 
story is an almost uninterrupted secpience of tragic events that cast the artist into 
the roles of hero and martyr. Schiele's debut as a child prodigy was accompanied 
by early conflicts at home and at school. A desperate emotional intensity during 
adolescence and early youth, social isolation and erotic excesses, resulted in a showdown 
with philistine provincialism, which brought about charges of immorality and a twenty- 
four day long prison sentence. Feverish work, uninterrupted by the complexities of friend- 
ships, love affairs, marriage and war, readied the artist for a dearly bought critical 
and commercial success w r ith its implied promise of eventual consolidation. At this 
moment the death of his young wife announced his own premature end, following 
within days. 

The painting and drawing of these two artists reflect both their respective disengage- 
ment from and involvement with the events of their lives. Where Klimt is ornamentally 
decorous, Schiele is often indecorously expressive. Klimt's meticulously structured 
mosaic compositions are opposite in concept and execution from Schiele's sure and 
daring linear scheme, as are Klimt's subtly balanced tonal effects when seen in 
juxtaposition with Schiele's fauve and eventually expressionist use of color. Klimt 
strives through formal means to attain an order that, not unlike Mondrian's, reduces 
spontaneous and individual components to a collective validity. Schiele, in contrast 
more like Klee, transcribes highly personal insights which then assume the power of 
evoking common experiences. Above all, Klimt, despite his current relevance to 
modern art, must be seen as a late exponent of an historic style, whereas Schiele 
raises to the most intense pitch the newly acquired awarenesses of 20th century man. 
Together, Klimt and Schiele signify an end and a beginning, and at one poignant 
moment their adjoining forms point simultaneously backward and forward to comprise 
past and future in a fleeting present. 

However, not everything between Klimt and Schiele is contrast. Similarities in their 
lives and backgrounds are also demonstrable, as are analogies in their respective 
work: Klimt's mother and Schiele's father died insane, and during their lifetimes 
both artists reacted with understandable sensitivity to their fearsome and similar 



12 



family histories. Preoccupation with erotic subject matter, common to both, is not 
itself surprising at a time and in the very city where Sigmund Freud's discoveries 
originated. But Klimt and Schiele felt compelled to visualize for themselves, and 
inevitably for others, what had until then been relegated to a most private domain. 
Inevitably, therefore, clashes between a truly Freudian irrepressibility and a 
conventional sense of decorum had to arise. Given the charged atmosphere in which 
Klimt and Schiele imparted forbidden knowledge through the most explicit of art 
forms — the visual media of painting and drawing — the personal consequences could 
not but be varying degrees of disgrace, humiliation and withdrawal. Thus, although 
Klimt and Schiele spring from different generations, there is about them both the 
faint but pervasive fragrance of fin-de-siecle that lends a sickly and tortured quality 
to their clairvoyant art. 

The relationship between Klimt and Schiele is in its factual aspects a matter of record 
but in its broader implications a source for fascinating if necessarily inconclusive 
speculation: we know that Schiele when still a student at the Vienna Academy 
sought Klimt's advice at a time when the older artist enjoyed a position of great 
eminence among venturesome working artists. Klimt commended the youth and 
proceeded to help him, then and later, in various ways. There cannot be any doubt 
that this counted heavily in Schiele's early efforts to assert himself and that it helped 
him to come into his own. The criticism which Schiele sought and obtained from 
Klimt after their first encounter in 1907 is reflected clearly and beneficially in his 
early work. Equally visible is Schiele's gradual detachment from Klimt's example and 
his development of a style in which Klimt has no longer a perceptible part after 1910. 

Less verifiable, although cpiite plausible, are often repeated speculations about a 
spiritual father-son relationship between Klimt and Schiele as well as the notion 
that Schiele became Klimt's heir and successor, receiving the mantle of the older 
artist during the few months that were given to Schiele after Klimt's death. Recently 
Schiele's filial reverence toward Klimt has been doubted and instead a struggle has 
been proposed in which an aggressive and self-confident Schiele sought to supplant 
his precursor. 2 This interpretation has been offered on the basis of an analysis of 
Schiele's double portraits depicting both artists. It appears likely that the true 
relationship between Klimt and Schiele must have run the gamut of all sentiments 
that inevitably reflect affinities and tensions between an older and a younger generation 
of artists. 

Freed from personal implications, the significance of the Klimt-Schiele relationship 
lies in the transition they make between the end of a decorative tradition and the be- 
ginning of an expressive direction, as these tendencies manifested themselves in Vienna 
at the turn of the century. With Gustav Klimt and Egon Schiele the span from 
Art Nouveau to Expressionism is bridged. 



1. Johannes Dobai. Gustav Klimt, Salzburg, Verlag Welz (in preparation). 

2. Alessandra Comini. Egon Schiele: The Artist's Vision of Himself, unpublished Master's thesis, 
University of California, 1964. 



13 




26. THE HERMITS, 1912 by Egon Schiele 



MJSTAV KLIMT 



17 



1862 Born on the night of July 13th, son of the goldsmith and engraver Ernst Kliml 

(1832 — 1894) and his wife Anna Finster, in Baumgarten, a suburb of Vienna. 

Second of seven children. 
1876 Accepted as special student with scholarship al the Kunstgewerbeschule des 

Osterreichischen Museums. 

Two years of preparatory classes with Rieser, Minningerode and Krachowina: 

afterwards studied with Ferdinand Laufberger. 
1879 Participated in decorative work of Hans Makart, leading Viennese historical painter. 

1881 Death of Laufberger. Continued studies under Berger. 

1882 Executed works for Karlsbad and Reichenberg with his vounger brother Ernst 
Klimt and Franz Matsch. 

Association with the theater architects Fellner and Helmer. 

1883 Moved into own studio with Matsch and his brother Ernst (Sandwirthgasse 8, 
Vienna). Many decorative works and commissions. 

1886 Important work by the three artists in Karlsbad. 

Began work on the ceiling paintings for the Wiener Burgtheater (Semper and 

Hasenauer). 
1888 Completion of ceiling paintings. Awarded Kaiserpreis. 

1891 Spandrels and panels between columns on stairway of Kunsthistorisches Museum 
in Vienna. 

Beginning of turn toward modern movement: stronger two-dimensionality, primitive 
aspects enter his work. 

1892 Death of his vounger brother Ernst. 

1893 Joined W iener Kunstlerhausgesellschaft. 

1894 Death of his father. 

Left Matsch, with whom he had received the commission for allegorical paintings 

of the faculties of Philosophy, Medicine and Law for the ceiling of the assembly hall 

of University of Vienna. 

Moved studio to Josefstrasse, Vienna. 

Otto Wagner wrote Moderne Architectur in this year. 

1895 Strong two-dimensionalitv and mood paintings . 

1896 Beginning of dissatisfaction on the part of the younger generation. 
Portrait of Marie Breunig, friend of Emilie Floge. 

Met architect Josef Hoffmann often in the Siebener Klub. 

1897 On April 3. formation of a separate group of the younger generation within the 
Kiinstlerhausgenossenschaft. 

On May 25, during its second meeting, the group declared its independence. 
Foundation of the Vereinigung Bildender Kiinstler Osterreichs, Secession. 
Klimt became first president. Work on the faculty panels; many modern works. 



18 



1898 In March, first exhibition of the Secession in rooms of the Wiener Gartenbaugesellschaft 
in the Parkring. 

Klimt's poster Theseus objected to on moral grounds and changed. 
Beginning of Secession's publication. T ~er Sacrum, and of building for group designed 
by Josef Maria Olbrich. 

Klimt painting for Palais Dumba, also symbolic works like ['alias ithena. 
Summers from now on spent mostly at Attersee. 

1900 First faculty painting. Philosophy, caused scandal at the Ttli spring exhibition 
of the Secession. 

Faculty at the University protested installation of the paintings. Wickhoff defended 

klimt in a lecture. 

In the autumn the work received the Medaille d'llonneur at the Paris \5 orld 

Exhibition. 

1901 Even greater scandal caused by the second faculty picture. Medicine, in the 
Secession's 10th spring exhibition. 

On March 19. the sixth edition of J'er Sacrum containing sketches for the painting 

was confiscated. 

On March 21. confiscation rescinded; parliamentary investigation of Klimt begun 

on same day. 

On March 23 Klimt interviewed for the Wiener Morgenzeitung. Hermann Bahr 

published Rede iiher Klimt. 

Participated in international art exhibition in Dresden. Beginning of great popularity 

in Germany. 

At end of year, Klimt nominated for professorship at Viennese Academy. 

Klimt and his friends suggest exhibition of Max Klinger's statue of Beethoven 

with symbolical friezes. 

1902 April- June. Secession's Beethoven exhibition. 

Klimt later exhibited Laiv panel in answer to criticism of his Goldjische. 
Painted his friend Emilie Floge. designed dresses for her fashion studio. 

1903 Trip to Ravenna; stronger mosaic quality in his pointillist paintings. 
Klimt group in the Secession organized a large Hodler exhibition; 
Hodler's international reputation increased greatly afterwards. 
Bahr published Gegen Klimt in his defense. 

November-December, large exhibition of Klimt's works in the Secession (18th 

exhibition). 

In the course of the vear tension began within the Secession; foundation of the 

Wiener Werkstdtte. Last year of publication of Ver Sacrum. 

1904 Increased tension within the Secession. Klimt left the Secession with his group, 
called the Stilisten 

(Auchtentaller. Bernatzik, Biihm, Holzel. Hoffmann. .lager. Klimt. Kurzweil. List. 
Luksch. Metzner, Moll. Orlik, Roller, Wagner). 



19 



Hoffmann's commission for the Stoclet Palace in Brussels: Klimt and the Wiener 
Werkstdtte designed frieze in the dining hall. 

1905 Klimt bought back the faculty paintings after writing a letter of protest to the 
Ministry of Education. 

Final break with official art. Government prevented his appointment to professorship. 
Trip to Berlin, where he received and declined Villa Romana prize. 
Miethke Gallery exhibition of Van Gogh. 

1906 Trip to Brussels and London in connection with the Stoclet frieze: 
admiration for Velasquez; general lightening of palette. 

Hevesi published 8 Jahre Secession with many articles about Klimt. Changes in the 
faculty panels. 

1907 Exhibition of the final version of the faculty panels in the Miethke Gallery in Vienna 
and the Keller and Reiner Gallery in Berlin. 

Illustrations for the Hetdrengesprdche. 

Met and encouraged the young Egon Schiele. 

1908 Wiener Kunstschau 1908, an exhibition given by the Klimt group in a temporary 
building designed by Josef Hoffmann. 

Opening address by Klimt; showed 16 new paintings. 

The Osterreichische Staatsgalerie bought Kiss; Death and Life awarded gold medal 

in Rome. 

Miethke Gallery announced publication of Das Werk Guslar Klimts. 

1909 Wiener Kunstschau 1909 showed Klimt's Old Woman and works by Schiele and 
Kokoschka (who staged his play Morder Hoffnung der Frauen). Munch. Corinth. 
Toorop. Bonnard, Vuillard, Matisse, Gauguin and ^ an Gogh. 

Began work on the Stoclet frieze. Trip to Paris in October. 

1910 Break with the "golden style". Included in the 9th international exhibition at Venice. 
Drew his mentally disturbed mother several times. 

1911 Installation of the Stoclet frieze in Brussels. 

To Rome where he exhibited several works with the Austrian division of the 
International Art Exhibition. 

The repainted Death and Life received a gold medal. In summer paintings of the 
castle in Kaminer. 

1912 Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer (II) and Miida Primavesi. 
Beginning of a broader painterly style. 

Important article by Weixlgartner in the Die Graphischen Kiinste. 

1913 The Virgin. Summer in Gardasee (Malcesine and Casone). 

1916 Spring, trip to Moravia. Portrait of Friedericke Maria Beer. 

1917 Nominated for honorary professorship at the Vienna Academy and Munich 
Academy. 

1918 After return from trip to Rumania, stroke of apoplexy on January 10. 
Died February 6. 



20 



GUSTA1 KLIMT - HIT \0ITE.1I' P.MTER johannes dobai 



The last few rears have witnessed an increasing number of exhibitions dedicated to 
Art Nouveau, the art of our grandfather's era. In recent publications, scholars have noted the 
similarity of some aspects of Art Nouveau to conteniporarv art: thev have traced the source 
of several elements of our own artistic tendencies to Art Nouveau. Because we still live in the era 
of the great transformations which engendered Art Nouveau, we see primarily the complexity of 
this phenomenon. Expressions like proto-Art Nouveau and post-Art Nouveau remind us of the 
inadequacv of our abstractions, by which we attempt to order organic processes. 

These studies have raised the question which concerns us here, the problem of Art Nouveau 
in painting. For those who are following in the steps of Conrad Fiedler, the concept of Art Nouveau 
painting itself contains a certain contradiction: much can be said for the theory that Art Nouveau was 
merelv a temporary parallel to the great revolution in representation which culminated in Cezanne 
and the cubists. According to this theory, the association of this revolutionary style with the 
Art Nouveau movement was only superficial — and in part, artistically detrimental, since Art 
Nouveau had entirely different spiritual origins. On the other hand, there is a formalistic conception 
which sees in Art Nouveau a general style concept encompassing Toulouse-Lautrec. Hodler. Munch. 
Seurat, Van Gogh, and also Stuck. ^ hen we consider the suggestion that Art Nouveau originated 
with Blake, we are faced with the whole problem of the relation of Art Nouveau to Symbolism, 
Mannerism and Surrealism. From here it is all too easy to lose the Art Nouveau movement in 
a general concept of the '"antielassical." 

One consequence of the reevaruation of Art Nouveau has been the rediscovery of Klimt. 
As the president of the Viennese Secession, an important modern artists' league at the turn of the 
century, this painter was once an outstanding figure on the international stage of Art Nouveau. 
Considering the quality of his work also, the rediscovery of Klimt was long overdue: it happened 
because his painting points straight to the problems of Art Nouveau. His oeuvre offers a complete 
example of the art of a "typical" Art Nouveau painter, especially the late, geometricizing phase 
of the style, called High Art Nouveau. which originated partially in Vienna under Klimt's influence. 



21 



Klimt's mature work exemplifies the characteristic features of this phase, the symbolical 
basis of the pictorial representation, together with the tendency to abstract this symbolic statement 
into stylized, geometrical, two-dimensional forms. Klimt's case seems to strengthen the older 
point of view that Art Nouveau's real territory lay in the area of applied art. He did not simply 
develop a planar art in the radical sense of Maurice Denis' theories; rather, more than any other 
of his contemporaries, Klimt treated the painting as a material object as well as a vehicle of 
representation and carrier of symbolic meaning. For this reason, he employed techniques which 
are in the simplest sense those of applied art. Gold and silver color and ornamentation are not 
illusionisticallv rendered on the canvas, but are applied directly to it. The painting follows both 
the laws of applied arts, i.e., material-structural laws, and general form principles, like the variation 
of pure rectangular forms on the picture surface. The ornamentalization of representational 
elements is more developed in Klimt's work than in Toorop, who had initially influenced him 
in this direction. 

One of Klimt's most important designs, a frieze in the dining hall of the Palais Stoclet 
in Brussels, was executed by the Wiener Werkstatte in various materials (marble, metal, enamel 
and semi-precious stones) before the advent of collage painting per se. While other artists of his 
generation created similar designs for the applied arts, Klimt's frieze is unique in that it reveals 
both a functioning ideologv and a deeper artistic intuition, which we sense in the paintings also. 
It is perhaps no accident that the frieze (one is tempted to call it an antipicture) was described 
by the young van Doesburg as among other things, a pure rectangular two-dimensional composition. 
Others noted that Klimt had abandoned illusionism and scientific perspective, and that his 
paintings "were composed with incredible audacity around 1900 of two kinds of elements: the 
representational and the abstract." (Hildebrand) Only in the Cubist collages did something similar 
occur. Already Klimt proceeded (in a precubist style, of course) as if he were assembling a 
puzzle of different materials and structures. The artist handles freely all the elements of his picture 
space; parts of the picture continue to be illusionistic (sometimes strikingly naturalistic), parts are 
flattened, deformed or fragmented. 

Because of these innovations, the images in Klimt's paintings are ambivalent. The 
multiplicity and instability of effect he seeks is concealed by the exaggerated precision of his forms. 
Every painting since the Renaissance has a more or less coherent "key" for the transposition of 
visual perception to the canvas. The key may vary within the picture (for example, by aerial 
perspective), but the painting remains self-contained and continuous; this is true even of Matisse's 
art. Klimt, however, broke with the continuity of spatial representation, circumvented the whole 
school of Impressionism, and treated ornamental motives both for their own sake and as elements 
equal to the fragments of representation in his paintings. Thus, his planes of ornament are 
fundamentals different from the tapestry-like surfaces we find in some Van Goghs and Vuillards. 
They do not present really existing ornament (although in several cases Klimt played with this 
possibility), but they are derived from autonomous symbols, repeated or added together. Klimt 
exploited metallic color as an anti-illusionistic element; applied with the brush or as foil, it sparkles 
or absorbs light depending on the spectator's point of view. Ornament not only forms a second 
picture plane: it is autonomous from I lie very beginning. It conjures up an esoteric realm, an 
aspect of Klimt's art to which we shall return. Precursors of Klimt's method of pictorial construction 
are found preeminentlv in the Pre-Raphaelites and in Guslave Moreau. WIhii the Nazarenes 



ornamented the borders of their paintings with small symbolical representations, they were striving 
for something remotely similar with more limited means. Klimt's solution naturally depends on the 
immediately preceding steps of Art Nouveau; these are too numerous to mention here. The general 
precondition of this development is the transformation of the Romantic into the Aesthetic move- 
ment in the age of Materialism. "Que la poesie se rattache aux arts . . . de la cuisine et du 
cosmetique . . . par Faccouplement de tel substantif avec tel adjectif, analogue ou contraire." 
(Baudelaire) 

Klimt's art is not simply refined; it is built upon a precarious balance of all possible 
contrasts. The painter emphasizes certain elements; for instance, he exaggerates the naturalism 
of the heads, which he sets in the canvas like precious stones in goldwork. His art, which at first 
strikes us as "intellectual" also has its dark "Slavic" side, as this term was understood in Vienna 
at that time ; as a matter of fact, Klimt was of partly Slavic ancestry. The all-over effortless precision 
of the composition and the exaggerated clarity of the forms is, to a certain extent, deceptive. 
If we examine his esoteric ornament more closely, we find in it an ambivalence of symbolic meaning 
which is independent from its historical source — whether this is Egyptian, Mvcenean, Celtic, 
a typically Art Nouveau whiplash line, or a motif borrowed from Mackintosh. This ambivalence 
refers both to its role in the painting and to the microstructure itself. For example, a pattern 
of wavy lilies suggests the Egyptian staring eve motif, but a remarkable change has taken place, 
a neutralization of a motif which formerly had magical connotations. In other cases, a window 
centered behind a head creates a halo effect, and here also, the motif is emptied of its mythical 
connotations — remarkable indeed for a symbolist. Countless sequences of flower motives have 
a clearly erotic character: women's breasts are stylized in the same manner. In other words, even 
the ornamental elements are ambivalent, and their general meaning, too, is elusive. One of Klimt's 
admirers, Ludwig Hevesi, described this quality in the prose style of contemporary neoroniantic 
Viennese literature. According to Hevesi, Klimt's ornament is a metaphor of the "never-ending, 
infinitely mutating primal matter — spinning, whirling, coiling, winding, twisting — a fiery whirlwind 
which assumes all shapes, flashing lightning and the darting tongues of serpents, clinging tendrils, 
enmeshed chains, dripping veils, stretched nets." 

Later, after 1910, such form allegories of the W eltrdtsel seen from a pessimistic and 
deterministic point of view cease as Klimt's art becomes deeper in content, more personal and 
more serious. Now Klimt turned to Far-Eastern motives to heighten the all-over luxuriousness 
of his paintings. Sometimes he worked out freer compositions which cannot be grasped semanticallv 
at all. In his late, open style, parts of the canvas seem to project a state of spontaneous psychic 
energy; unfinished sections clearly* show the emergence of these almost psvcliographie images. 

An ideology and a personality coalesce in Klimt's innovations. On the one hand, they 
are the consequence of a long development, which cannot be traced here, since it involves the 
whole idea complex of "romantic agony." (Praz) For klimt and his friends, these ideas were allied 
with an ideology of social reform derived from the English and Van de Veldc. The paradoxical 
association of spiritual and materialistic elements was already evident in the art of the Pre- 
Raphaelites. 

We know little today about the ideas and experiments in Europe which were intimately 
familiar to Klimt as the president of the Viennese Secession. Who. for instance, knows anything 
about Carl Strathmann? An artist of lesser importance but related by temperament to Klimt. 
he handled pictorial motives and ornament in a similar fashion. Lovis Corinth's essay describing 



23 



the genesis of this artist's Salome may clarify the psychic process behind Klimt's inclination 
toward loading his canvas with minute ornament. According to Corinth, this disposition reflects 
an inner condition, classically formulated by Balzac in his Chef (foeuvre inconnu. Cezanne, a 
different type of artist, also appreciated this story, because it deals with the problem of perfecting 
a work of art. Klimt and Strathmann forced perfection on the canvas by most artificial means. 

What little we know about Klimt's personality would indicate a further analogy with 
Corinth's description of Strathmann. The first president of the Secession, this outwardly pugnacious 
artist was an embittered champion of the collective Gesamtkunstwerk against some of his colleagues 
in the Secession (he left it in 1904 with some friends); a figure of robust health and physical strength, 
Klimt was actually a shy and complex person, hardly less so than Munch. 

A "cerebral erotic" (Blei), Klimt suffered at times from depression, intensified by his 
reading "a dangerous literature about heredity and guilt" (Tietze) ; Klimt's mother was 
mentallv ill. His appearance was so little like a decadent artist (and his emaciated figures) 
that he disappointed many people. His manner of "playing Caliban" at times led Lichtwark. 
usually a perceptive observer, to a rather superficial description: "He is squat, somewhat 
heavy, athletic, would have liked to wrestle with Hodler, has the cheerful rough ways 
of a country bov, the tanned skin of a sailor, protruding cheekbones and lively small eyes. He 
wears his hair brushed back from his temples, perhaps to make his face appear longer. This is 
the only thing which might lead one to suspect that this man is an artist. He speaks in a loud 
voice and in heavy dialect. He likes to tease and joke." We know also that Klimt had photographs 
taken of himself several times in a remarkable painter's robe of his own design, which made him 
look like a high priest of painting. He appears in this garb on a boat in the Attersee, where he was 
one of the first people in Austria to own a motorboat. Klimt spent twenty summers there in the 
company of Emilie Floge, whom he never married, as Tietze explains, out of his fear of turning 
happiness into routine. Tietze also reports: "To outsiders, he presented a simple and ordinary 
appearance; to those who knew him, an existence full of mystery. Klimt's outward life and manners 
had much of the Philistine about them; he guarded his inner life jealously. Circumstances placed 
Klimt in the spotlight of Viennese artistic life, but he was actually a shy person who dreaded 
public appearances." Indeed, the last decade of his life was spent in isolation. 

We know of no long letters by Klimt; he once mentioned his aversion to writing. This 
gives us additional reason to study the content of his paintings more closely. 

The locus of Klimt's thematic material is the erotic, which (we might expect in Freud's 
city) branches into its sexual and biological aspects. The predilection toward the erotic can be 
noted both in figural compositions and in landscape. From the middle of the 90's male portraits 
disappear from Klimt's work. His female portraits are psychological studies of a nervous luxury 
(one is reminded of Bronzino and Ingres) — strange visions of petrified bloom, icon-like, embedded 
in the colorful splendor of a pictorial tapestry. The earlv landscapes often show a swamp or a 
glistening water surface; later they become close-ups of vegetation, transformed into a rich and 
sensuous surface. Paintings of gardens are frequent. The theme of the profusion of nature viewed 
intimately also fascinated Van Gogh, whose art was well known in Vienna: but Klimt's constantly 
repeated ornamentalized leaves and flowers stress the unfree and predetermined aspect of the 
biological world. We are rather far removed from the demonically sexual vision of nature in 
Huysmans (La-bas); however, klimt sometimes paints flowers resembling sexual organs. Even 
where such an analogy is not explicit, the flower retains an ambivalent amorphous outline. Klimt 
assimilated the principles of Hodler's parallelism, and after 1900 often made use of the pointillist 



24 



technique, transformed into a pervasive luminous vibration. In other landscapes, a construction 
of parallel planes of foliage suggests the experience of isolation and alienation. This "manneristic 
distance" is heightened by the luxuriance of Klimt's color. In effect, the panerotic quality of the 
figurative pictures, which caused a great deal of protest, including a parliamentary investigation, 
was consistently carried through in Klimt's landscapes. 

The panerotic symbolism runs through his oeuvre like a constantly reappearing thread. 
While his paintings were neglected. Klimt's reputation as a draftsman of the erotic never diminished: 
he was one of the greatest draftsmen of his time, surely equal to Beardslev. Even the early academic 
virtuoso paintings reveal Klimt's orientation. A fundamental theme in his painting, the biological 
self-sufficiency of the female, appears in the early works in the metaphor of the Lesbian. His 
experiments in symbolism in the 90's were based on those of the Pre-Raphaelites and Klmopff, Minne 
and Stuck. At that time Klimt was a typical painter of the "femme fatale" and shared with his 
contemporaries the elaborate hair fetishism common since Rossetti. It is very characteristic, 
however, that Klimt evolved his personal view of these themes in a commission, where his break 
with tradition was to be fateful for his entire career. Klimt interpreted his three panels for the 
University of Vienna on the theme of the faculties of philosophy, medicine, and law through a 
kind of pessimistic determinism which recognized the biological as the only true element of life, 
and thus the sciences as useless gloss to life's infinite meaningless course. Ignoramibus could be 
said to be the message of these pictures, which were violently discussed and which Klimt eventually 
bought back from the Ministry of Culture. Wickhoff noted the emergence of a new concept of 
science and ugliness in the panels. 

Perhaps influenced by Rodin's Gates of Hell, Klimt painted a livper-naturalistic knot 
of nude bluish bodies, hanging in a cosmic void, entwined like links in a chain. Purposely shocking 
motives, like a distorted pregnant woman (a theme already treated by Ensor, which Klimt later 
developed independently) and ornamental motives emerge at random. The panels evoke Freud's 
region of the subconscious, especially the last of the three, the Law panel of 1907. 

In this painting, the sexual also determines ethical fate (as in Klimt's contemporary 
Beethoven frieze, where, however, art is personified as the liberator). Demonic furies, "partially 
tuberculous and knock-kneed, partially overripe voluptuous hetaerae," to use the words of a hostile 
critic, are looking past a condemned man standing by a wall (a favorite motif of Strindberg and 
Kafka). Here and in the mature paintings as well, one can discern how the ornament strengthens 
the artist's conception. The furies' hair echoes the smokelike forms which, moving through the 
picture, symbolize fate. Hevesi described the ornamentalized octopus-like creature which symbolizes 
guilt as "a new American execution machine, system of a thousand suction cups which function 
like blood-letting tubes ... a submarine tiger of the latest construction." 

The theme of all the paintings remains the "fateful passivity of mankind, brutish, suffering, 
rejoicing, feeling, longing, caught in an overwhelming instinctualitv as if driven in a dream through 
time and space." (Ottmann) This idea is sometimes embodied in favorite themes of the time such 
as The Ages of Man and Death and Life. The development of stereotyped formulae for motives 
like Expectation, Hope, Fulfillment (kiss). Old Age (decay and ugliness) and Death is notable; 
Death, for example, is the traditional symbol of the skeleton dressed as a high priest. Klimt shares 
these formulae with the great painters of ideas, Hodler and Munch. He too, as if obsessed, returns 
again and again to the material of an all comprehensive frieze of life. But he differs from Munch 
and Hodler in his tendency toward stronger or emblematic stvlization, his adherence to 
naturalistic figures as elements of contrast, and by his horror vacui. Klimt is much less 
convincing than Munch when he deals with the theme <>l man as a self-isolated individual. 



25 



Klimt's late phase brought a new, more open expression of agony. Around 1910 he loosened 
his bond to the ornamental, allegedly because of the liberating influence of a visit to Paris. Whatever 
the cause, the transformation of Klimt's art was critical and rapid. At this time, he repainted 
one of the principal works of his '"golden period," Death and Life, changing the gold background 
to blue and replacing precise ornament with looser block-like forms reminiscent of huge cells. The 
bright colors of this phase are akin to those of Matisse — but Slavic folk art also played a part, 
suggesting the noisy salmon red which Klimt often used. Composition became more dynamic, 
as in the Virgin of 1913. Here a tangle of ecstatic women's faces and limbs turn in a great spiral: 
the insistently repeated smaller spirals of the ornament reinforce the expression of inner ecstasy. 

Klimt's artistic testament, the uncompleted Bride of 1917 — 18, is more than anexpressionistic 
painting, as it is usually described. A flamelike formation of landscape fragments and of figures 
surrounds a figure whose legs are symmetrically disposed as if she were on a torture bench. One 
is reminded more of Henry Miller than of the "femme fatale." 

klimt's work in Munich may have aroused the interest of the voung Kandinsky; his 
experiments in composition have impressed many, and there are elements in his work which only 
our own time can appreciate. On the whole, however, Klimt's work did not lead into a wider stream 
of art; he was almost unknown in France, and German Expressionism developed as an antipode 
to this kind of painting, which remained for the most part confined to Vienna. A theoretician 
of the German Expressionist movement wrote in 1914 of "Klimt's Viennese school . . . which 
still has a spark of life left in it." The author was referring to Kokoschka and Egon Schiele. Schiele, 
whose works are also featured in this exhibition, was in contact with Klimt, his only true master, 
from 1907. He acknowledged his debt to Klimt once in 1909 with a remarkable self-portrait 
variant on a nude in the Medicine panel (interestingly, a female figure); later he drew Klimt on 
the deathbed, shortly before his own death. Naturally, Schiele's true debt to Klimt is to be found 
in his entire oeuvre, not so much in the early canvases, which were directly influenced by Klimt. 
as in those produced shortly after the association of the two artists. The interrelationship of the 
two has yet to be clarified. It began in any case in 1909, when Schiele exhibited his Dead Mother 
and Klimt his Old Woman in the Wiener Kunstschau; Klimt's painting, with its sombre colors, 
is the first indication of his renunciation of the "golden style," although it is not certain whether 
Klimt was influenced by Schiele's presence. Sometimes the similarity between their works is 
surprising, for instance in the landscapes with church steeples of 1913. Klimt painted in Casena, 
Schiele in Stein an der Donau, yet the resulting canvases are very similar. Later both tended 
to soften the angularity of their forms more and more, and the block or cell-like decorative system 
seems to have been a common development. More important, however, are their deeply related 
artistic tendencies. 

Klimt and Schiele established an autonomous world within Viennese modern painting, 
shared only with the young Kokoschka. Their world is strongly colored by death; anxiety, the 
basic modern experience, is more limited and sociologically concrete in the works of these artists 
than in those of their great contemporary. Munch. In Munch, anxiety breaks forth in a Kirkegaardian 
shriek of loneliness. With the Viennese, even considering the more exhibitionistic aspects of Schiele. 
this anxiety is the fruit of the dissolution of an overripe culture which was overcome by world 
historical events in the very year of Klimt's death and that of his pupil. Anxiety reveals itself 
here in an erotic frenzy springing from a feeling of emptiness. The artists express a kind ol nihilism 
which had almost nothing to do with the ethical nihilism of the 19th century. Wanting to fill this 
emptiness, Klimt filled his bare canvases with his Art Nouveau experiments. 



Translated by Dr. Avram Kampf am] Miss Winifred Mason 



27 



DR.UYMiS l\ THE EXHIBITION 



1. NUDE MODEL. 1898. Pencil, pastel, 16fxl<H" (41.5 X 26 cm.). 
Collection Viktor Fogarassy, Graz, Austria. 

2. PORTRAIT OF A WOMAN, PROFILE. 1900-03. Pencil, 21fxl3f" (55x35 cm.). 
Collection Christian M. Nebehay, Vienna. 

3. STUDY FOR "HYDRA"'. 1903-06. Pencil, 14J-X21J-" (37 x 54.5 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

4. STUDY FOR "PORTRAIT OF MAGDA MAUTNER-MARKHOF KOTTLE". 1905-07. 
Pencil, 21f X 13}" (55x35 cm.). 

Collection Neue Galerie am Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz, Austria. 

5. BLACK FEATHER HAT. c. 1910. Mixed media, 211x131" (54x34 cm.). 
Collection Dr. and Mrs. Ferdinand Eckhardt, Winnipeg. 

6. LOVERS, c. 1910. Pencil, 22|xl44" (56x 36.5 cm.). 
Collection Viktor Fogarassy, Graz, Austria. 

7. STUDY FOR "PORTRAIT OF MADA PRIMAVESI". c. 1912. Pencil, 22x14+/' (56x36.7 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina. Vienna. 

8. SEATED WOMAN. 1912-15. Pencil, 22+xUJ" (56.9X 37.5 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

9. RECLINING NUDE. c. 1917. Pencil, 14ix22}" (37 X 56.5 cm.). 

Collection Christian M. Nebehay, Vienna. 

10. MADA PRIMAVESI. c. 1914. Pencil, 22±x 14-}" (56.5X 37 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina. \ ienna. 

11. STANDING NUDE. 1916. Pencil. 22+xl4}" (57 X 37.5 cm.). 
Collection Mr. Eberhard W. Kornfeld, Bern. 

12. STUDY FOR "PORTRAIT OF FRIEDERICKE MARIA BEER", c. 1916. Pencil, 22|x 14|" (57 x 37.5 cm.). 
Collection Fedcrica Beer-Monti, New York and Vienna. 

13. STUDY FOR "PORTRAIT OF FRIEDERICKE MARIA BEER", e. 1916. Pencil, 22fx 14}" (57 x 37.5 cm.). 
Collection Fedcrica Beer-Monti, New York and Vienna. 

14. STUDY FOR "PORTRAIT OF FRIEDERICKE MARIA BEER", c. 1916. Pencil, 22-fx 14}" (57 x 37.5 cm.). 
Collection Federica Beer-Monti, New York and Vienna. 

15. STUDY FOR "PORTRAIT OF FRIEDERICKE MARIA BEER", c. 1916. Pencil. 22|x 14}" (57x37.5 cm.). 
Collection Federica Beer-Monti, New York and Vienna. 

16. RECLINING NUDE, FACING LEFT FROM THE BACK. 1916-18. Pencil, 13}x224/' (34.7x57 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 



17. HEAD OF A GIRL. 1916-18. Ink, chalk, 22±xl4+/' (56.6 x 36.9 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

18. BUST OF A GIRL. 1916-18. Pencil. 22x141" (56x36 cm.). 
Collection Christian M. Nebehay, Vienna. 

19. HALF-LENGTH PORTRAIT OF YOUNG WOMAN. 1917-18. Pencil, 20| x 13" (51x33 cm.). 
Collection Christian M. Nebehay, Vienna. 

20. STUDY OF BABIES, c. 1917-18. Pencil, chalk. 22^x14+" (56x37 cm.). 
Collection Viktor Fogarassy, Graz, Austria. 

21. RECLINING WOMAN WITH FOLDED ARMS. Red pencil, 14^x22" (37x56 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

22. SEATED NUDE FROM THE BACK. Pencil, 224, x 144/' (56.5 x 37 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

23. SEATED HALF-NUDE. Pencil, 22^x144/ (56.5 X 37.2 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

24. STANDING NUDE. Pencil. 224.x 144/' (56.5 x 37 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina. Vienna. 

25. STANDING WOMAN. Pencil, 201x13" (51.3 X 32.8 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

26. STUDY FOR PORTRAIT OF A WOMAN. Pencil, 19£x 134/ (49.5 x 33.6 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

27. WOMAN'S HEAD, THREE-QUARTER VIEW. Pencil, chalk, 224x14 J" (56.7 x 37.2 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

28. WOMAN IN CLOAK, STANDING. Pencil, 224x144/' (56.8 X 37.5 cm.). 

Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

29. WOMAN STANDING, FACING RIGHT. Pencil, 19|Xl2|" (49.6 x 32.4 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

30. FEMALE MODEL, ARMS RAISED BEFORE HER HEAD. Pencil, 21£xl34. (55 x 33.6 cm.). 
Collection Dr. and Mrs. Ferdinand Eckhardt, Winnipeg. 

31. RECLINING NUDE. Pencil, 14^x224/' (38x57.2 cm.). 

Collection Dr. and Mrs. Ferdinand Eckhardt, Winnipeg. 

32. SEATED NUDE, HEAD RESTING ON HAND. Pencil, 22+xl4|" (57 x 37.5 cm.). 
Collection Dr. and Mrs. Ferdinand Eckhardt, Winnipeg. 

33. STANDING NUDE IN PROFILE TO LEFT. Pencil, 22J-X14;}" (57 x 37.5 em.). 
Collection Dr. and Mrs. Ferdinand Eckhardt, Winnipeg. 

34. STANDING NUDE WITH ARMS PLACED DIAGONALLY ACROSS BODY. Pencil, 22|xl4f" (56.4 x 37 cm.). 
Collection Dr. and Mrs. Ferdinand Eckhardt. Winnipeg. 

35. RECLINING NUDE. Crayon, 174x121" (44.5x31 cm.). 
Collection Viktor Fogarassy, Graz, Austria. 

36. SEATED WOMAN WITH HEAD TURNED RIGHT. Pencil, 18 x 124/' (46x31 cm.). 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Serge S. Sabarsky, New York. 



29 





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PAIITIMS U THE EUIIIHTIIU 



33 




34 





Entries in this catalogue are chronological. References to 
literature and exhibitions under each heading are abbreviated, 
and may be found in detail in the documentation section 
on page 54. 



"BEWEGTES WASSER". c. 1900. 

Oil on canvas. 204 X 25f " (52 X 65 cm.). 

Signed 1. r. "Gustav Klimt". 

Private Collection, New If ork. 

Exhibitions: Galerie St. Etiemie. New York. 1959. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New \ork. 1961, no. 2. 

Galerie St. Etienne. New \ork, 1964, no. 12. 
Literature: dobai. j. no. 102. 



MEDICINE. (Oil sketch for painting destroyed in 1945.) 

1897-1898. 

Oil on canvas, 29+ X 21 J" (75x55 cm.). 

Not signed or dated. 

Private Collection. Vienna. 

Exhibitions: Wiener Secession, A ienna, 1903, no. 18. 

Osterreichische Galerie, Vienna. 1962, no. 3. 

Wien urn 1900, Vienna. 1964. no. 32. 
Literature: eisler, M. Gustav Klimt. Vienna, 1920. p. 23. 

HATLE, I. Gustav Klimt, Graz, 1955. 

pirchan, E. Gustav Klimt. Vienna. 1956, pi. 55. 

DOBAI. J. Gustav Klimt. no. 76. 



3. ATTERSEE. 1900-1901. (Illustration page 33.) 
Oil on canvas. 39+ x 39+" (100 x 100 cm.). 
Signed on stretcher. 

Collection Dr. and Mrs. Otto Kallir. New \ork. 
Provenance: Galerie Nebehay, A ienna. 

Neue Galerie, \ ienna. 

Galerie St. Stephan, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Osterreichische Kunst im 20. Jahrhundert. Bern, 

1937.no. 1. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New Vork. 1950, no. 11. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1959. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1961, no. 3. 

University Art Gallery. L niversity of California, 

Berkeley, 1963, no. 11. 
Literature: werner, a. "The World of Gustav Klimt", 

Arts, New York. April 1959, p. 31. 

dobai. j. no. 107. 



35 





PINE FOREST. 1901-1902. 

Oil on canvas, 35^x 35i" (90x 90 cm.). 

Not signed or dated. 

Collection Galerie Wiirthle, Vienna. 

Provenance: Private Collection, Vienna. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Wiener Secession, Vienna, 1903, no. 41 or 43. 

Wiener Secession, Vienna, 1928, no. 40. 

Ausstellungshaus FriedrichstraBe, Vienna, 1943, 

no. 30. 

Von Schindler bis Klimt, Vienna, 1955, no. 137. 

Osterreichische Landschaftsmalerei von Schindler 

bis Klimt, Graz, 1957, no. 28. 
Literature: iievesi, l. Acht Jahre Secession, 1897—1905, 

Vienna, 1906, p. 370. 

dobai, J. no. 115. 



FRUIT TREES, c. 1902. 

Oil on canvas, 35£x 35^" (90 X 90 cm.). 

Not signed or dated. 

Private Collection, Vienna. 

Provenance: Sonja Knips, Vienna. 

Exhibitions: Wiener Secession, Vienna, 1903, no. 9. 

Von Schindler bis Klimt, Vienna, 1955, no. 140. 

Osterreichische Landschaftsmalerei von Schindler 

bis Klimt, Graz, 1957, no. 27. 

Biennale, Venice, 1958, no. 5. 
Literature: BAHR, H. and altenberg, p. Das Werk von 

Gustav Klimt, Leipzig and Vienna, 1918, p. 2. 

tietze, H. "Klimt, Gustav", U. Thieme- 

F. Becker, Leipzig, vol. XX, 1927, p. 505. 

Liechtenstein, M.-j. "Gustav Klimt unci 

seine Oberosterreichischen Salzkammergutland- 

schaften", Oberosterreichische Heimatblatter, 

July— December, 1951, p. 111. 

hatle, I, Gustav Klimt, Graz, 1955. 

DOBAI, J. no. 117. 



36 




PEAR TREES. 1903. 

Oil on canvas, 394x 394" (lOOx 100 cm.). 

Not signed or dated. 

Collection Fogg Art Museum. Harvard University, Cambridge. 

Gift of Dr. Otto Kallir. 

Provenance : Neue Galerie, ^ ienna. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York. 
Exhibitions: Wiener Secession, \ ienna, 1903, no. 7. 

Grofie Kunstausstellung, Dresden, 1904. 

II. Deutsche Kiinstlerbiindausstellung, Berlin, 

1905, no. 110. 

Galerie St. Etienne. New York, 1950, no. 14. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York. 1959. 
Literature: hevesi, l. Acht Jahre Secession, 1897—1905, 

Vienna. 1906. p. -151. 

hatle. I. Gustav Klimt. Graz, 1955. 

dobai. j. no. 137. 



37 




Detail from the project of the Sloclet Frieze 7 B 



38 





7H 



71 



39 




7D 



7E 



7F 



7. PROJECT FOR FRIEZE AT THE STOCLET PALACE. 

1905-1909. 

This project is a study for a frieze executed in glass mosaic, 

semi-precious stones, majolica, white marble, metal and 

enamel for the Stoclet Palace in Brussels, designed by 

Joseph Hoffmann. 

Mixed media, 9 panels. 

A. Tree of Life, 78x37^-" (197.8 x 95.3 cm.). 

B. The Expectation, 76ix45i" (193.5X 115 cm.). 

C. Tree of Life, left panel, 78 X 4H" (197.7 X 105.4 cm.). 

D. Tree of Life, center panel, 76^x40" (193.8 X 102 cm.). 

E. Tree of Life, right panel, 78^x401" (198.1 X 103.5 cm.). 

F. Tree of Life with Bush, 76+X47" (194.2x118.9 cm.). 

G. Tree of Life, 77x47^" (194.6 x 120.3 cm.). 

H. Small Screen, decorative section, 78x35f" (197. 7x 

91.1 cm.). 
I. Realization (The Kiss), 77x47j" (194.6 x 121.3 cm.). 
Collection Osterreichisches Museum fur Angewandte Kunst. 

Vienna. 
Provenance: Sigmund Primavesi, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Galerie Nebehay, Vienna, 1920. 

Ausstellungshaus FriedrichstrafJe, Vienna, 1943, 

no. 25-31,41-44. 

Osterreichisches Museum fiir Angewandte Kunst, 

Vienna, 1956. 

Osterreichisches Museum fiir Angewandte Kunst, 

Vienna, 1959. 



Musee National d'Art Moderne, Paris, 1961. 
no. 325. 

Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, 1961, nos. 
78-86. 

Albertina, Vienna, 1962, no. 101, a — i. 
Wien urn 1900, Vienna, 1964, no. 835. 
Literature: steinmetz. l. "Kunstschau, 1920", Kunst und 
Kunsthandwerk, Vienna, 1920. p. 189. 
eisler, M. Gustav Klimt, Vienna, 1920. 
eisler, M. Gustav Klimt, Vienna, 1931, p. 11, 
pis. 12-17. 

fleischmann, b. Gustav Klimt, Vienna. 1946, 
p. 11. 

hatle, i. Gustav Klimt, Graz, 1955. 
selz, P. and constantine, m. eds. Art Nouveau, 
New York, 1959, pp. 77-78. 
jacobus, j. "Art Nouveau in New York". 
Burlington Magazine. London. September 1960. 
p. 392 ff. 

ankwicz von kleehoven, h. "Josef Hoffmann : 
Das Palais Stoclet in Briissel", lite uml 
Moderne Kunst, Vienna. 1961. p. 7 ff.. pi. 8. 
sciimitzler, R. Art Nouveau. New Vork. 1962. 
pp. 246. 259. 

strachwitz, A. "Ein W iener Haus in Brussel", 
Alle und Moderne Kunst, Vienna. 1962, p. 22 ff., 
pi. 3. 
dobai. .1. no. 148. 



40 





FARM GARDEN (Flower Garden). 1905-1906. 

Oil on canvas, 431x431" (110x110 cm.). 

Signed 1. r. "Gustav Klimt". 

Collection Narodni Galerie, Prague. 

Exhibitions: Kunstschau IT ien. Vienna. 1908. room 22, no. 10. 

Kunstschau Wien, Vienna, 1909, room 22. no. 5. 

Deutsch-Bohmischer Kiinstlerbund. Prague. 1910. 

no. 98. 

Moderni Galerie, Prague, 1926, no. 687. 

Modern! Galerie, Prague, 1934, no. 386. 

Deutsche Gemdlde des Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts. 

Berlin, 1950. 

Dum Umeni Mesta Brno. Brno, 1963, no. 10. 

Wien um 1900., Vienna. 1964. no. 43. 
Literature: weixlgartner, a. "Gustav KJimt", Die Gra- 

phischen Kiinste. Vienna, 1912, pp. 49 — 66. 

tietze. H. "Klimt, Gustav"". U. Thieme- 

F. Becker, Leipzig, vol. XX, 1927, p. 505. 

honigschmid, R. "Die Moderne Galerie in Prag". 

Witiko, Kassel, 1928, pp. 126-127. 

DUBAI, j. no. 146. 



ORCHARD. 1907 - 1908. (Dobai dates this work as 

1907-1908: 

Carnegie Institute as 1910.) 

Oil and tempera on canvas, 394-X 39-V" (100X 100 cm.). 

Signed 1. 1. "Gustav Klimt". 

Collection Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute. Pittsburgh. 

Provenance: Private Collection, New York. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1959. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1964, no. 14. 

Werner, A. "The World of Gustav Klimt" 

Arts, New York, April 1959, p. 31. ill. 

dobai. j. no. 154. 



Exhibitions 
Literature: 



10. DEATH AND LIFE or DEATH AND LOVE. c. 1908 (re- 
worked 1911). 

Oil on canvas, 701 X 78" (178 X 198 cm.). 
Signed 1. r. "Gustav Klimt". 
Collection Marietta Preleuthner, Vienna. 
Provenance: Hans Bohler, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Esposizione Internazionale, Rome. 1911, no. 106. 

Internationale Kunstschau, Dresden, 1912, no. 

1828. 

Kunsthalle, Mannheim, 1913, no. 195. 

Kiinstlerhaus Rudolphinum, Prague, 1914. 

no. 18. 

Deutsch-Bohmischer Kiinstlerbund. Berlin. 1916. 

Deutsch-Bohmischer Kiinstlerbund, Stockholm. 

L916 or 17. 

Ein Jahrhundert Wiener Malerei, Zurich, 1918, 

no. 59. 

Osterreichische Galerie, Vienna, 1923, no. 123. 

VS iener Secession. V ienna, 1928, no. 70. 

Ausstellungshaus FriedrichstraBe, V ienna, 1943, 

no. 54. 

Secession, Vienna, 1950, no. 11. 

Secession, Vienna. 1951. no. 55. 

Biennale, V enice, 1958, no. 10. 

Wien um 1900, Vienna. 1964, no. 48. 
Literature: hevesi, l. Altkunst— Neukunst, Vienna, 1909. 

p. 206 ft". 

pollak, o. "Die Internationale Kunstausstel- 

lung in Rom, 1911", Zeitschrift fur Bildende 

Kunst, Leipzig, no. 12. 1911. p. 288. 

weixlgartner. A. "Gustav Klimt"', Die Gra- 

phischen Kiinste, Vienna, 1912, p. 56. 

stork, w. "Die Ausstellung des Deutschen 

Kiinstlerbundes in Mannheim, 1913". Kunst fur 

Alle, Munich, August 1913. p. 481. 



41 




10 



"Ausstellung des Deutschen Kiinstlerbundes in 

Mannheim, 1913", Deutsche Kunst utid Dekora- 

tion, Darmstadt, October 1913 — March 1914, 

p. 11. 

glaser. "Berliner Ausstellung", Kunstchronik, 

Leipzig, no. 19, February 4, 1916, p. 189. 

baiir, II. and altenberg, P. Das Werk von 

Guslar Klimt, Leipzig and Vienna, 1918, p. 4. 

eisler, M. Guslav Klimt, Vienna, 1920, p. 27. 

eisler, M. Gustav Klimt, Vienna, 1931, p. 11, 

pi. 18. 

fleischmann, B. Gustav Klimt, Vienna, 1946, 

pp. 9 10, pi. 18. 

i'irciian, e. Gustav Klimt, Vienna, 1956, p. 11 

I. n., pi. opp. p. 105. 

hatle, I. Gustav Klimt, Graz, 1955. 

dobai, j. no. 157. 



42 




11 



11. CASTLE KAMMER OX ATTERSEE I. 1909. 
Oil on canvas. 43^X434/ (110 X 110 cm.). 
Signed I. r. "Gustav Klimt". 
Collection Xarodni Galerie. Prague. 
Exhibitions: Kunslschau Wien, Vienna, 1909, room 22, no. 3. 

Kiinstlerhaus Rudolphinum. Prague, 1910. 

no. 100. 

Moderni Galerie. Prague. 1926. no. 686. 

Moderni Galerie. Prague. 1934, no. 388. 

Deutsche Nationalgalerie. Rerlin, 1956, no. 29. 

Xarodni Galerie. Prague, 1961, no. 3. 

Diim Umeni Mesta Brno. Brno. 1963. no. 9. 

Wien urn 1900, Vienna. 1964. no. 49. 
Literature: hevesi. l. "Internationale Kunstschau in Wien. 

1909". Zeitschrift fiir Bilde.ide Kunst. Leipzig. 

1909, p. 223. ill. 

Kinu>T, K. "Die 'Kunstschau". Wien. 1909". 

Kunst fiir Alle. Munich. October 1909. p. 21. 

welxlgartner. a. "Gustav Klimt". Die Gra- 

phischen Kiinsle. Vienna. 1912. p. 61. 

tietze, h. "Klimt, Gustav", U. Thieme- 

F. Becker, vol. XX, 1927, p. 505. 

honigschmid. R. "Die Moderne Galerie in 

Prag". Wiliko, Kassel. 1928. p. 127. 

Liechtenstein, m.-j. "Gustav Klimt und 

seine Oberosterreichischen Salzkammergutland- 

schaften", Oberbsterreichische Heimatbldtter. 

July — December. 1961. p. 113 ff. 

hatle. I. Gustav Klimt. Graz. 1955. 

dobai. j. no. 163. 



12. BLACK FEATHER HAT. 1910. 

Oil on canvas. 31ix24j" (79x63 cm.). 
Signed and dated I. r. "Gustav Klimt, 1910". 
Collection \ iktor Fogarassy, Graz. 
Provenance: Rudolf Kahler. Vienna. 

Beran, Prague. 
Exhibitions: IX. Esposizione Internazionale di 1 enezia. 

\ enice, 1910, Klimt room, no. 19. 

Ausstellungshaus Friedrichstrafie. Vienna, 1943. 

Academy of Fine Arts. \ ienna. 1948. 

Die Klassiker der Osterreichischen Kunst von 

Klimt bis Wotruba. Stuttgart. 1957. no. 35. 

kunsthalle, Diisseldorf, 1959, no. 69. 

Xeue Galerie am Landesmuseum Joanneum. 

Graz. 1962. no. 2. 

Osterreichische Galerie, Vienna, 1962, no. 21. 

Wien urn 1900, Vienna. 1964, no. 50. 
Literature: bahr. ii. and altenberg. p. Das Werk von 

Gustav Klimt, Leipzig and \ ienna. 1918, p. 4, ill. 

eisler. M. Gustav Klimt. 1920. p. 44. 

karpfen. F. Gegenuartskunst, vol. 3, Osterreichi- 
sche Kunst, \ ienna. 1923, p. 105. 

hatle. I. Gustav Klimt. Graz. 1955. 

strobl, a. Gustav Klimt, Salzburg, 1962, p. 55. 

koller. e. "Apotheose der Sinne: Gustav Klimt 

zum 100. Geburtstag". Alte und Moderne Kunst. 

\ ienna. September 1962 — October 1963, p. 6. 

dobai. j. no. 161. 



43 




44 



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13 



14 



13. CASTLE KAMMER ON ATTERSEE III. 1910. 
Oil on canvas, 43^X434/' (110x110.). 
Signed 1. r. "Gustav Klimt". 

Collection Victor Gruen, Beverly Hills, California. 
Provenance: Hermann Eisler, Vienna. 

Hans Bolder, Vienna. 

Federica Beer-Monti, New York and Vienna. 
Exhibitions: IX. Esposizione Internazionale di lenezia, 

Venice, 1910, Klimt room, no. 1. 

Esposizione Internazionale . Rome, 1911, no. 15. 

Kunstschau Wien, Vienna, 1920, no. 41. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1950, no. 13. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1959. 

Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, 1964, 

no. 110. 
Literature: bahr, h. and altenberg, p. Dos Werk von 

Gustav Klimt, Leipzig and Vienna, 1918, p. 4. 

eisler, M. Gustav Klimt, Vienna, 1920, p. 21. 

Liechtenstein, m.-j. "Gustav Klimt und 

seine Oberosterreichischen Salzkammergutland- 

schaften", Oberosterreichische Heimatblatter, 

July -December, 1961, p. 113 ff. 

dobai, j. no. 165. 



14. THE PARK. 1909-1910? c. 1903? 

Oil on canvas 43^x431" (110.3x110.3 cm.). 

Signed 1. 1. "Gustav Klimt". 

Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Gertrude 

A. Mellon Fund. 

Provenance: Galerie St. Etienne, New York. 

Exhibitions: IX. Esposizione Internazionale di Venezia, 

Venice, 1910, Klimt room, no. 1!. 

Esposizione Internazionale Rome, 1911, Austrian 

Pavilion, no. 109. 

Glaspalast, Munich, 1913, no. 6556. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1950, no. 15. 

The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1957. 



Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1959. 
Literature: "Painting and Sculpture Acquisitions", The 
Museum of Modern Art Bulletin, New York, 
January 1, 1957 - December 31, 1957, p. 22, 
ill. p. 5. 

geist, s. "Month in Review", Arts, New York, 
January 1958, p. 46. 
dobai, j. no. 167. 



15. MADA PRIMAVESI. 1912. 

Oil on canvas, 59x434/ (150 X 110 cm.). 

Signed 1. r. "Gustav Klimt". 

Collection Mrs. Andre Mertens, Westport, Connecticut. 

Provenance : Primavesi, Vienna. 

Hugo Bernatzik, Vienna. 

Mrs. Jenny Steiner, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Deutsch-Bohmischer Kiinstlerbund, Berlin, 1916. 

Wiener Secession, Vienna, 1928, no. 63. 

L'Exposition d' Art Autrichien, Paris, 1937, 

no. 361. 

Osterreichische Kunst im 20. Jahrhundert, Bern, 

1937, no. 5. 

Ausstellungshaus FriedrichstraBe, Vienna, 1943, 

no. 50. 

Secession 1900-1950, Vienna, 1950, no. 10. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1959. 
Literature: Raphael, m. "Die Deutsche Landschaft als 

Malcrisches Sujet", Deutsche Kunst und Deko- 

rntion, Darmstadt, April — September, 1916, 

p. 59, ill. 

eisler, m. Gustav Klimt, 1920, p. 45. 

pirchan, e. Gustav Klimt, Vienna, 1942, pi. VI; 

1956, ill. in color after pi. 140. 

hatle, I. Gustav Klimt, Graz, 1955. 

dobai, j. no. 178. 



45 




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15 



46 





18 



16. HOUSE ON ATTERSEE. 1912-1911, 
Oil on canvas, 43+ h X43+/' (110x110 cm.). 
Signed 1. r. "Gustav Klimt". 
Private Collection, Vienna. 
Provenance: Jenny Steiner, Vienna. 
Literature: dobai, j. no. 173. 



18. CHURCH IN UNTERACH, ATTERSEE. 1916. 
Oil on canvas, 431x434/' (HOx 110 cm.). 
Signed 1. r. "Gustav Klimt". 
Collection F. B., Graz. 
Provenance: Stephan Gotthilf, Vienna. 

Fritz Redlich, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Osterreichische Kunst im 20. Jahrhundert, Bern, 

1937. 

L'Exposition d\4rt Autrichien, Paris, 1937. 

Osterreichische Lundschaftsmalerei con Schindler 

bis Klimt, Graz, 1957, no. 31. 

Die Klassiker der Osterreichischen Kunst von 

Klimt bis ITotruba, Stuttgart, 1957, no. 34. 

Biennale, Venice, 1958, no. 12. 

Ncue Galerie am Landesmuseum Joanneum, 

Graz, 1962, no. 5. 
Literature: fleischmann, b. Gustav Klimt, Vienna, 1946, 

p. 16, pi. 28. 

Liechtenstein, Jl.-j. "Gustav Klimt und 

seine Oberosterreichischen Salzkammergutland- 

schaften", Oberosterreichische Heimatblatter, 

December 1951, p. 114. 

HATLE, I. Gustav Klimt, Graz, 1955. 

dobai, J. Gustav Klimt, no. 187. 



47 




17 



17. THE VIRGIN. 1913. 

Oil on canvas, 75 x 79" (190 X 200 cm.). 
Signed 1. r. "Gustav Klimt". 
Collection Narodni Galerie, Prague. 
Exhibitions: Glaspalast, Munich, 1913, no. 1595. 

Kiinstlerhaus Rudolphinum, Prague, 1914, 

no. 23. 

Moderni Galerie, Prague, 1926, no. 788. 

Modern! Galerie, Prague, 1934, no. 387. 

Narodni Galerie. Prague, 1947, no. 174. 

Deutsche Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 1956. 

Narodni Galerie, Prague, 1961, no. 5. 

Dum Umeni Mesta Brno, Brno, 1963, no. 11. 

W'ien urn 1900, Vienna, 1964, no. 52. 



Literature: bahr, h. and altenberg, p. Das Herk von 
Gustav Klimt, Leipzig and Vienna, 1918, p. 2. 
EISLER, M. Gustav Klimt, Vienna, 1920, p. 44. 
TIETZE, H. "Klimt, Gustav", U. Thieme- 
F. Becker, vol. XX, Leipzig, 1927, p. 505. 
honigschmid, R. "Die Moderne Galerie in 
Prag", Witiko, Kassel, 1928, p. 127. 
eisler, M. Gustav Klimt, Vienna, 1931, pp. 
12-13. 

volavka, v. Pruvodce po Moderni Galerie. 
Prague, 1934, p. 24. 
hatle, I. Gustav Klimt, Graz, 1955. 
pirchan, e. Gustav Klimt, Vienna, 1956, p. 11, 
ill. after pi. 113. 

strobl, a. Gustav Klimt, Salzburg, 1962, p. 57. 
zemina, j. "Osterreichische Kunst des 20. Jalir- 
hunderts in der CSSR", Alte und Moderne 
Kunst, Vienna, March — April. 1963, p. 49. 
dobai, j. no. 179. 



48 














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20 



19. FRIEDERICKE MARIA REER. 1916. 
Oil on canvas, 664. X 51 " (168 x 130 cm.). 

Signed and dated 1. 1. "Gustav Klimt, 1916; u.r. Friederieke 
Maria Reer". 

Collection Federica Reer-Monti, New York and Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Kunstschau Wien, Vienna, 1920, room IX. 

Osterreichische Galerie, Vienna, 1929, no. 76. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1950, no. 16. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1959. 

Galerie Nebehay, Vienna, 1963. 
Literature: steinmetz, l. "Kunstschau 1920", Kunst und 

Kunsthandwerk, Vienna, 1920, p. 189. 

eisler, M. Gustav Klimt, Vienna, 1920, p. 16. 

eisler, M. Gustav Klimt. Vienna. 1931, no. 24. 

fleischmann, B. Gustav Klimt, Vienna, 1916, 

p. 13. pi. 24. 

hatle, I. Gustav Klimt, Graz, 1955. 

pirchan, E. Gustav Klimt, Vienna, 1956, pi. 104. 

SELZ, P. German Expressionist Painting, Rerke- 

ley and Los Angeles, 1957, pi. 52. 

C. G. Review of Exhibition at Galerie St. Etien- 
ne, New York, Art News, New York, April 1959, 

p. 12. 

dobai, j. no. 193. 



20. ORCHARD WITH ROSE RUSHES. 1916. 
Oil on canvas, 434, X 43-}" (110x110 cm.). 
Signed 1. 1. "Gustav Klimt". 
Collection Viktor Fogarassy, Graz. 
Provenance: Reran, Prague. 

Galerie Welz, Salzburg. 
Exhibitions: Osterreichische Landschaftsmalerei von Schindler 

bis Klimt, Graz, 1957, no. 29. 

Die Klassiker der Osterreichischen Kunst von 

Klimt bis Wotruba, Stuttgart, 1957, no. 36. 

Neue Galerie am Landesmuseum Joanneum. 

Graz, 1962, no. 6. 

Wien um 1900, Vienna, 1964, no. 40. 
Literature: strobl, a. Gustav Klimt. Salzburg, 1962, no. 58. 

ill. 

dobai, j. no. 192. 



50 




21 



21. SCHONBRUNNER PARK. 1916. 

Oil on canvas, 43^x43^" (HOx 110 cm.). 

Signed 1. 1. "Gustav Klimt". 

Private Collection. Graz. 

Provenance: Dr. Othmar Fritseh. 

Exhibitions: Osterreichisehe Landschaftsmalerei von Schindler 

bis Klimt, Graz, 1957, no. 30. 

Biennale. Venice, 1958, no. 16. 

Kunsthalle, Diisseldorf, 1959, no. 74. 

Neue Galerie am Landesmuseum Joanneum, 

Graz, 1962, no. 7. 
Literature: dobai, j. no. 189. 



22. DANCER. 1916-1918. 

Oil on canvas, 71 X 351" (180 x 90 cm.). 

Not signed or dated. 

Lent by Galerie St. Etienne, New York. 

Provenance: R. Lanyi, Vienna. 

Exhibitions: Kunstschau Wien, Vienna, 1920, room I. no. 47. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1959. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1964, no. 16. 
Literature: steinmetz, l. "Kunstschau 1920". Kunst und 

Kunsthanduerk, Vienna, 1920, p. 189. 

dobai, j. no. 211. 



51 




22 



52 




23 



23. GARDEN. 1916-1918. 

Oil on canvas, 43J;X43i" (110x110 cm.). 

Signed 1. r. "Gustav Klimt". 

Collection Galerie ^ iirthle. Vienna. 

Provenance: Hans Bohler, Vienna. 

Exhibitions: Osterreichische Kunst im 20. Jahrhundert, Bern. 

1937, no. 12. 

Von Schindler bis Klimt. ^ ienna, 1955, no. 139. 
Literature: fleischmann. b. Gustav Klimt. Vienna, 1946, 

p. 16, pi. 23. 

hatle, I. Gustav Klimt, Graz, 1955. 

PIRCHAN, E. Gustav Klimt. Vienna, 1956, pi. 109. 

dobai. j. no. 197. 



24. BABV. 1917-1918 (unfinished). 

Oil on canvas, 43+X43+ (110 X 110 cm.). 
Not signed or dated. 

Lent by Galerie St. Etienne, New \ork. 
Provenance: Sigmund Primavesi, Vienna. 

Joseph Urban, New \ork. 
Exhibitions: Galerie Nebehay, Vienna, 1919. 

Kunstschau Wien. Vienna. 1920, room IX. 

no. 48. 

Wiener Secession, Vienna. 1928, no. 72. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1959. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1964, no. 15. 
Literature: fischel. h. "Klimt NachlaB bei Nebehay", 

Kunst und Kunsthanduerk. ^ ienna. 1919, p. 178. 

tietze, H. "Gustav Klimts Personlichkeit. nach 

Mitteilung seiner Freunde", Die Bildenden 

Kiinste, Vienna, 1919, p. 1 ff. 

EISLER, M. Gustav Klimt. Vienna. 1920. p. 45. 

fleischmann, B. Gustav Klimt. Vienna, 1946. 

pp. 12-13, pi. 25. 

hatle, I. Gustav Klimt. Graz, 1955. 

dobai, j, no. 204. 



53 




24 



54 



,tit 



i.IIOI'P EXHIBITIONS OF PAINTINGS 



Only books, periodicals and exhibitions which refer to specific 
paintings in this exhibition are listed in the documentation section 
of the catalogue. 

The basis for all the documentation of the work of Gustav Klimt 
in this catalogue is Dr. Johannes Dobai's unpublished manuscript 
of his catalogue raisonne, Gustav Klimt, to be published in 1965 
by the Galerie Welz, Salzburg. 



ONE MAN EXHIBITIONS OF PAINTINGS 



wiener secession, Vienna, November— December, 1903, 
XVIII. Ausstellung, Gustav Klimt. Catalogue introduction 
by E. Stohr and C. Moll. 

IX. Esposizione Internationale di Venexia, Venice, 1911). klimt 
room. 

kunsthandlung G. nebehav. Hotel Bristol, Vienna, June 1919. 
Klimt Nachlafi. 

wiener secession, Vienna, June 27— July 31, 1928, Gediichtnis- 
ausstellung Gustav Klimt. 

AUSSTELLUNGHAUS FRIEDRICHSTRASSE (formerly SECESSION), 
Vienna, February 7 — March 7, 1943, Gustav Klimt Ausstel- 
lung. Catalogue introduction by Fritz Novotny. 

XXIX. INTERNAZIONALE BIENNALE DI VENEZIA, Venice, 1958, 
Gustav Klimt. Catalogue introduction by Otto Benesch, 
pp. 21)1 204. 

galerie ST. etienne, New York, April 1959, Gustav Klimt. 
Catalogue introduction by Otto Kallir, n. p. 

NEUE GALERIE AM LANDESMUSEUM JOANNEUM, Graz, June 22 — 
July 22, 1962. Gedachtnisausstellung aus Anlafi des 100. Ge- 
burtstages von Gustav Klimt, 14. Juli 1862—6. Februnr 1918. 
Catalogue introduction by Dr. Trude Aldrian, n. p. 

OSTERREICHISCHE galerie, Vienna, October 15— December 16, 
1962, Gustav Klimt. Catalogue introduction by Fritz Novotny, 
n. p. 

albertina, Vienna, October 16 — December 16, 1962, Gustav 
Klimt 1862 — 1918, Zeichnungen. Catalogue introduction by 
Walter Koschatzky and Alice Strobl, pp. 3 — 12. (Although 
a drawing exhibition, Stoclet Frieze included.) 

christian M. nebehay, Vienna, March 30— May 4, 1963, Gustav 
Klimt, Eine Nachlese. Catalogue introduction l>\ Christian] 
M. N[ebeha\ ], n. p. 



wiener secession, Vienna, 1902. 
Grofie Kunstausstellung, Dresden, 1904. 
//. Deutsche Kiinstlerbundausstellung, Berlin, 1905. 
Kunstschau Wien, Vienna, 1908. 
Kunstsrhau Wien, Vienna, 1909. 
Deutsch-Bohmischer Kiinstlerbund, Prague, 1910. 
Esposizione Internationale, Rome, 1911, Austrian Pavillion. 
Internationale Kunstschau, Dresden, 1912. 

kunsthalle, Mannheim, March 4 — September 30, 1913, Aus- 
stellung des Deutschen Kiinstlerbundes. 
GLASPALAST, Munich, 1913, Die XI. Internationale Kunstausstellung. 
KUNSTLERHAUS RUDOLPHINUM, Prague, 1914, Deutsrh- Rohmischer 

Kiinstlerbund. 
Deutsch-Bohmischer Kiinstlerbund, Berlin, 1916. 
Deutsch-Bohmischer Kiinstlerbund, Stockholm, 1916 or 17. 
Ein Jahrhundert Wiener Malerei, Zurich, 1918. 
Kunstschau Wien, Vienna, June— September, 1920. 
galerie nebehay, Hotel Bristol, Vienna, June 1920. 
OSTERREICHISCHE galerie, Vienna, September — October, 1923, 

Von Fiiger bis Klimt. 
modern! galerie, Prague, 1926. 
OSTERREICHISCHE galerie, Vienna, 1929. 

modern! galerie, Prague, 1934, Pruvodce po Modern! Gaterii. 
Oslerreichische Kunst im 20. Jahrhundert, Bern, 1937. 
L' Exposition d\4rt Autrichien, Paris, 1937. 
NARODNI galerie, Prague, 1947, Sbirka Moderniho Umeni. 
academy of fine arts, Vienna, 1948, Entwicklung der Oster- 

reichischen Kunst. I on 1897 bis 1938. 
galerie ST. etienne, New York, April 1950, Austrian Painting 

of the Nineteenth Century, from Waldmuller to Klimt. Catalogue 

introduction by Ernst Buschbeck. 
wiener secession, Vienna, 1950, Wiener Secession 1900—1950. 
Deutsche Gemalde des Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts aus tschechischen 

Museen, Berlin, 1950. 
wiener secession, Vienna, 1951, Unsterbliches Wien im Spiegel 

der Secession. 
Von Schindler bis Klimt, Vienna, 1955. 
DEUTSCHE nationalgalerie, Berlin, 1956, Deutsche Gemalde des 

Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts ous tschechischen Museen. 
osterreiciiisches museum fur angewandte kunst, Vienna, 

December 1956, Die Wiener Werkstdtte. 
Die Klassiker der Osterreichischen Kunst von Klimt bis Wotruba, 

Stuttgart, 1957. 
Oslerreichische Landschaftsmalerei von Schindler bis Klimt, Graz, 

1957. 
the museum OF modern art, New York, 1957, Recent Acquisitions. 
osterreichisches museum fur angewandte kunst, Vienna, 

Kunstgewerbe des 20. Jahrhunderts, 1959. 
kunsthalle, Diisseldorf, 1959, Osterreichische Malerei 1830—1900. 
musee national d'art moderne, Paris, November 4, 1960 — 

January 23, 1961, Sources of the XXth Century, the Arts in 

Europe from 1884 — 1914. Catalogue introductions by Jean 

Cassou, Giulio Carlo Argan, Nicolaus Pevsner, pp. 15 — 55. 
the galerie st. etienne, New York, March 14— April 8, 1961, 

Klimt, Schiele, Kokoschka, Kubin. 
PALAIS des beaux-arts, Brussels, April— May, 1961, Art Autri- 
chien du I ingticme Siecle. 
NARODNI GALERIE, Prague. 1961, Rakouske Umeni, XX. Sloleti 

Moderniho Umeni. 
dum umeni mesta brno, Brno, 1963, Rakouske Umeni, XX. Sto- 

Icti. 



55 



■•I inonn mi s 



university art gallery, The University oi' California, Berkeley, 
February 5 — March 10, 1963; pasadena art museum, 
Pasadena, March 19 — April 21, 1963, Viennese Expressionism 
1910 — 1924. Catalogue introduction by Herschel B. Chipp, 
pp. 7-17. 

haus DER kunst, Munich, March 14— May 10, 1964, Secession, 
Europdische Kunst um die J ahrhundertwende. Catalogue intro- 
duction by Siegfried Wichmann, pp. 1 — 19. 

I?ien um 1900, Vienna, June 5 — August 30, 1964. Exhibition of 
painting, sculpture, graphics, organized by the city of Vienna; 
paintings shown at the secession. 

galerie ST. etienne, New York, October 17 — November 14, 
1964, Twenty-fifth Anniversary Exhibition. 

the Baltimore museum OF art, Baltimore, October 6 — Novem- 
ber 15, 1964, 1914, An Exhibition of Paintings, Drawings and 
Sculpture. Catalogue introduction by George Boas, Henri Peyre, 
Lincoln F. Johnson, Jr., Gertrude Rosenthal, pp. 11 — 30. 



HOOKS 



hevesi, ludwig. Acht Jahre Secession 1897 — 1905, Kritik — 

Polemik — Chronik, Vienna, 1906. 
hevesi, ludwig. Altkunst — Neukunst, Wien 1894 — 1908, Vienna, 

1909. 
BAHR, HERMANN and ALTENBERG, PETER. Das Werk von Gustav 

Klimt, Leipzig and Vienna, Hugo Heller Kunstverlag, 1918. 
eisler, max. Gustav Klimt, Vienna, 1920. 
karpfen, fritz. Gegenwartskunst, vol. 3: Osterreichische Kunst, 

Vienna, 1923. 
tietze, HANS. "Klimt, Gustav", U. Thicmc-F. Becker, Allgemeines 

Lexikon der Bildenden Kiinstler, vol. XX, Leipzig, Verlag von 

E. A. Seemann, 1927. 
eisler, max. Gustav Klimt, an Aftermath, Vienna, Austrian State 

Printing Office, 1931. Edition republished in 1946 by Franz 

Deuticke, Vienna, with new text by benno fleischmann, 

Gustav Klimt, Eine Nachlese. 
volavka, vojtech. Pruvodce po Moderni Galerii, Prague, 1934. 
pirchan, emil. Gustav Klimt, ein Kiinstler aus Wien, Vienna, 

Leipzig, Verlag Wallishausser, 1942. 
fleischmann, benno. See Eisler, Max, 1931. 
hatle, ingomar. Gustav Klimt, Ein Wiener Maler des Jugendstils. 

Dissertation from Graz University, 1955 (unpublished manu- 
script). 
PIRCHAN, EMIL. Gustav Klimt, Foreword by A. Griinberg, Vienna, 

Bergland Verlag, 1956. 
selz, PETER. German Expressionist Painting, Berkeley and Los 

Angeles, University of California Press, 1956. 
SELZ, peter and CONSTANTINE, MILDRED, eds. Art Nouveau, with 

articles by Greta Daniel, Alan M. Fern, Henry- Russell 

Hitchcock and Peter Selz, New York, The Museum of Modern 

Art, 1959. 
schmutzler, ROBERT. Art Nouveau, New York, Harry N. Abrams, 

Inc., 1962. 
STROBL, ALICE. Gustav Klimt, Zeichnungen and Gemiilde, Salzburg, 

Verlag Galerie Welz, 1962. 
dobai, Johannes. Gustav Klimt, Salzburg, Verlag Welz (in prepa- 
ration). 



Ver Sacrum, Secession, Mitteilungen der Osterreichischen Kiinstler- 

vereinigung, Vienna, vol. 6, no. 22, 1903, pp. 361 — 383. 
hevesi, ludwig. "Internationale Kunstschau in Wien, 1909", 

Zeitschrift fiir bildende Kunst, Leipzig, vol. XX, no. 10, 1909, 

pp. 221-224. 
kuzmany*, KARL M. "Die 'Kunstschau', Wien, 1909", Kunst fiir 

Alle, Munich, vol. 25, October, 1909, pp. 20-22. 
pollak, oskar. "Die Internationale Kunstausstellung in Rom, 

1911", Zeitschrift fiir bildende Kunst, Leipzig, vol. XXII, 

no. 12, 1911, p. 288. 
weixlgartner, arpad. "Gustav Klimt", Die Graphischen Kiinste, 

Vienna, vol. XXXV, 1912, pp. 49-66. 
STORK, willy f. "Die Ausstellung des Deutschen Kunstlerbundes 

in Mannheim, 1913", Kunst fiir Alle, Munich, vol. 28, August 

1913, p. 481. 
"Ausstellung des Deutschen Kunstlerbundes in Mannheim, 1913", 

Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration, Darmstadt, vol. XXXIII, 

October 1913 -March 1914, p. 11. 
GLASER, [curt]. "Berliner Ausstellung", Kunstchronik, Leipzig, 

vol. XXVII, no. 19, February 4, 1916, p. 189. 
Raphael, MAX. "Die Deutsche Landschaft als Malerisches Sujet", 

Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration, Darmstadt, vol. XXXVIII, 

April — September, 1916, p. 57 ff. 
tietze, HANS. "Gustav Klimts Personlichkeit, nach Mitteilung 

seiner Freunde", Die bildende Kunst, Vienna, vol. II, 1919, 

p. Iff. 
FISCHEL, hartwig. "Klimt Naehlafi bei Nebehay", Kunst und 

Kunsthandwerk, Vienna, vol. XXII, 1919, p. 178. 
STEINMETZ, L. "Kunstschau, 1920", Kunst und Kunsthandwerk, 

Vienna, vol. XXIII, 1920, p. 189. 
honigschmid, r. "Die Moderne Galerie in Prag", Witiko, Kassel, 

vol. I, 1928, pp. 126-127. 
Liechtenstein, marie-jOSE. "Gustav Klimt und seine Ober- 

osterreichischen Salzkaininergutlandschaften", Oberoster- 

reichische Heimatbldtter, Institute fiir Landeskunde, Ober- 

osterreichisches Landesmuseum, Linz, vol. 5, no. 3-4, July — 

December, 1951. 
"Painting and Sculpture Acquisitions", The Museum of Modern 

ArlBulletin, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, vol. XXV, 

no. 4, January 1, 1957 - December 31, 1957, p. 22, ill. p. 5. 
GEIST, SIDNEY. "Month in Review", Arts, New York, vol. 32, 

no. 4, January 1958, p. 46. 
C. G. Review of exhibition at Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 

Art News, New York, vol. 158, no. 2, April 1959, p. 12. 
werner, alfred. "The World of Gustav Klimt", Arts, New York, 

vol. 33, no. 7, April 1959, pp. 25-31. 
JACOBUS, JOHN, JR. "Art Nouveau in New York". Burlington 

Magazine, London, vol. CII. no. 690, September 1960. 

p. 392 If. 
ANKWICZ VON kleehoven, HANS. "Josef Hoffmann: Das Palais 

Stoclet in Briissel", Alte und Moderne Kunst, Vienna, vol. 6, 

no. 42, January 1961, p. 7 If., ill. 8. 
STRACHWITZ. artur GRAF. "Ein Wiener Haus in Briissel". Alte 

und Moderne Kunst, Vienna, vol. 7, no. 60-61. July— August. 

1962, p. 22 ff., ill. 3. 
KOLLER, ERNST. "Apotheosc der Shine: Gustav Klimt zum 

10(1. Geburtstag", Alte und Moderne Kunst, Vienna, vol. 7. 

no. 62-63, September 1962 - October 1963, pp. 6— 11. 
zemina, jaromir. "Osterreichische Kunst des 20. Jahrhunderts 

in der CSSR". Alte ami Moderne Kunst, Vienna, vol. 8, 

no. 67, March- April, 1963, pp. 48-49. 



urn SC1IIELE 



59 



IMi 



1890 Born June 12 at Tulln on the Danube, Austria. 

Third child of railroad stationmaster, Adolph Schiele and his wife Marie. 
1896—1900 Attended primary school at Tulln. 

Precocious drawing ability which his family was unequipped to accept. 
1901 — 1902 Sent to the nearby town of Krems for further schooling. 

1902 Schiele's father became victim of a recurring mental disease: family moved to 

Klosterneuburg where his older sister Melanie supported them as cashier in the local 

railroad station. 
1902 — 1906 Attended the abbey school at Klosterneuburg. 

Graded "unsatisfactory" in all subjects except freehand drawing, calligraphy and 

gymnastics. 
1905 One of Schiele's teachers, Professor Ludwig K. Strauch. a painter of local fame, 

recognized the boy's remarkable gifts and gave him encouragement and private 

instruction. 

Despite a certain degree of school comradeship he remained an outsider, preferring 

the company of his younger sister, Gertrud, with whom during their adolescent 

years, he had an intense relationship. 

1905 Schiele's father died insane. An uncle, Leopold Czihaczek, inspector at the North 
Railroad Station in Vienna was appointed Schiele's guardian. 

1906 Against violent opposition from his uncle, Schiele was accepted at the Vienna 
Academy of Art, and the family moved to Vienna. 

He studied with Professor Christian Griepenkerl, a neoclassic painter in the tradition 
of Feuerbach. Schiele criticized Griepenkerl openly and the opposing views and 
temperaments of student and teacher resulted in mutual hostility. 

1907 He showed a portfolio of his drawings to Gustav Klimt, twenty-eight years his senior. 
Klimt's sincere praise furthered Schiele's rebellious attitude at the Academy. 
From 1908 to 1909 his work showed the strong influence of Klimt. 

1908 Schiele's work was shown for the first time at Klosterneuburg in a group exhibition 
of local artists. 

Worked off' and on for the Wiener W erkstatte. avant-garde workshop of arts and 
crafts in Vienna. 



60 



1909 At Klimt 's invitation exhibited four paintings in the \ ieima international Kunstschau 
where works of Kokoschka and Van Gogh were also represented. 

In April Schiele with a group of like-minded voung artists withdrew from the 

Academy and formed an independent organization ]\eukiinstgruppe Wien which had 

its first exhibition that year at the Kunstsalon Pisco. 

Schiele's work admired by the collector Heinrich Benesch and the newspaper art 

critic, Arthur Roessler, who befriended and encouraged him. 

Set up his first studio. Painted two important self-portrait oils. 

1910 Lived solitary life in extreme poverty. Drew and painted many portraits and 
self portraits. 

Discarded the stylistic devices of Klimt's Art Nouveau style and achieved 

an independent and original idiom of his own. 

Began the Self-Seer series, the result of an obsession with his own mirror 

image. 

1911 Moved to small country village of Krumau, his mother's hometown, where he 
started a series of town scenes, but was forced to leave because of his reputation 
for "pornographic" drawings. 

Settled in the small town of Neulengbach, near Vienna. 

Vally (Valerie Neuzil), a model introduced to him by Klimt, visited him often and 

became his mistress. 

Participated in group shows in Vienna and Munich, and exhibited with the 

Neukunstgruppe W ien in Budapest. 

1912 April 13th, Schiele was arrested on charges of "immorality" and "seduction" 
and his work confiscated by the Neulengbach police. 

He kept a diary, drew and made twelve watercolors during the twenty-four days 

he spent in prison. At his trial the judge set fire to one of his drawings in 

symbolic condemnation of his work. 

The humiliation of his arrest and trial stronglv affected his personality and art. 

May 8th. returned to Vienna a bitter recluse; began series of monks, hermits and 

other ascetic figures. 

In November he moved his studio to Hietzinger Hauptstrasse 101 where he remained 

until 1918. 

Painted The Hermits, monumental work depicting his relationship with Klimt. 

1913 A year of objective contemplation: his major canvases landscapes (The Bridge, 
The City Stein) and portraits. 

Exhibited in the Vienna and Munich Secession; invited to send works to collective 

shows abroad. 

Contributed to the magazine Die iktimi in Berlin. 



61 



1914 Slowly emerged from his sell-imposed isolation. 

Participated in a modern art competition sponsored by Reininghaus and received 

important portrait commission from Friedericke Maria Beer. 

Experimented with etching; contributed to Die Aktion. 

His sister Gertrud married his best friend, the painter Anton Peschka. 

Met the Harms sisters, Adelle and Edith; began active courtship of Edith. 

1915 May 31st drafted into the Austrian army. June 17th, married Edith Harms. 
June 21st, with Edith reported to Prague for military duty; recalled to Vienna after 
basic training. 

Exhibited in Zurich and Vienna. His painter friend Paris von Giitersloh published 

a small monograph on him. 

Major canvases including Portrait of his Wife, Soaring and Death and Maiden. 

1916 Declared unfit for combat duty for reasons of health and assigned in May to guard duty 
at the village of Miihling where he sketched the Russian prisoners of war. 
Participated in four exhibitions in Germany and one in Vienna. 

Die Aktion devoted the pictorial part of its September issue to his work. 
Painted Portrait of an Old Man (his father-in-law) and The Saw Mill. 

1917 Transferred to Vienna and assigned to the Army Museum. 

He had more time for painting, living at home, with a regular schedule and 

began at least sixteen major oils that year. 

Portfolio with twelve reproductions of his drawings published. 

Invited to exhibit in Vienna, Munich, Dresden, Amsterdam and Stockholm. 

Despite growing reputation his poverty and debts continued and, at Ediths urging. 

he produced many drawings for quick sale. 

Painted The Embrace and began work on The Family. 

1918 February 6th, death of Gustav Klimt. Schiele sketched him on his death bed. 
Schiele's one-man show at the March exhibition of the Vienna Secession an over- 
whelming success; he was acclaimed by the press and his works bought for private 
collections. 

Commissions poured in; executed two figure lithographs and had twenty-five works 

featured in the exhibition One Hundred Years of Viennese Painting in Zurich. 

Moved into a large garden atelier and home at Wattmanngasse 6. Edith became 

pregnant with their first child. 

Commenced a monumental portrait series which reveals a stylistic softening of his 

linear approach in favor of a new painterly modeling. 

In October the great influenza epidemic reached Vienna. 

Edith died of the disease. 

Schiele is put to bed with influenza and died during the night of October 31st. 



63 



egoi siiiiele - n\mm 



JAMES T. DEMETRION 



Most of the recent literature concerning Egon Schiele has been focused on the artist's 
remarkable draughtsmanship to the unjustified neglect of his paintings. Certainly one of the major 
reasons for this neglect can be explained by simple mathematics: the number of paintings which 
the artist produced during his very brief period of creativity was quite small whereas the graphic 
production was unusuallv large. Otto Nirenstein-Kallir lists fewer than 250 works in his first 
catalogue of Schiele's paintings, and nearly fifty of them were painted prior to the artist's eighteenth 
birthday. Although some paintings have been re-discovered during the thirty-five years since 
the catalogue was originallv published, still others have been lost or destroyed. 

Even aside from the paucity of paintings, there is a tendency to think of them as colored 
drawings. According to Wolfgang Fischer in a recently published exhibition catalogue, "Kokoschka 
is a painter, even with pen and pencil; Schiele is a draughtsman, even with a brush." 1 If the words 
"painter" and "draughtsman" are employed in their conventional sense, i.e., one who exploits 
the free flow of paint and brush as contrasted to one whose compositions are marked by a bold 
linearitv, then — with several notable exceptions — the statement concerning the two artists is 
generally valid. 

But Schiele thought of himself and demanded to be considered by others primarily as 
a painter. 2 Bv and large, the drawings which he rapidly dashed onto paper were exercises which 
provided him a meager source of income or they were sketches and studies which yielded him 
a storehouse of forms to be incorporated later into paintings. The stvlistic development of his 
paintings parallels that of his drawings. However, during the last few years of his life, the forms 
in his paintings tend toward a monumentality akin to that of his Swiss contemporary, the muralist 
Ferdinand Hodler whom Schiele greatlv admired. This monumental effect does not appear to be 
a goal of his drawings. 

It is in the realm of subject matter rather than stvle that the greatest difference lies 
between the artist's graphic works and his paintings. Some subjects which occur frequently in 
his drawings — erotic themes, for example — are seldom found in the paintings. On the other hand, 
houses and eityseapes comprise a relatively greater part of his painting activity. The intimate 
medium is more often employed to depict the intimate scene whereas the broader expanse of 
canvas is used to portray a man-made or a natural environment. 

Schiele's paintings can be divided into four major categories — portraits, trees and landscapes, 
houses and eityseapes, and various universal themes and allegories — which will be briefly examined. 
All of the works discussed will date from the time that Schiele established his own personal style 
of painting in 1910. 



64 



The spring of the previous year was undoubtedly the single most significant period in 
his life. During that time a series of events occurred which culminated in his artistic independence 
a year later. Threatened with expulsion from the academy because of a 13-point indictment in 
the form of a petition against the academic system in general and against the arch-conservative 
painting instructor Professor Christian Griepenkerl in particular (for example, point two was: 
"Ts Nature only that which the Herr Professor recognizes as such?") 3 , Schiele and his fellow 
students in Griepenkerl's painting class withdrew from the academy. On June 17. 1909. the 
Xeukunstgruppe (Modern Art Group) was formed by sixteen young artists, most of whom had 
been members of GriepenkerPs class. Schiele was elected president of the group. Although no 
philosophy was set forth in the document which organized the Neukunstgruppe (the name appears 
to have been selected later), one can assume that its ideals were closely related to the indictment 
against the academy. 

Schiele exhibited his paintings for the first time in \ ienna in the Internationale Kunstschau 
1909, a show in which nearly 170 artists from nine European countries were represented. Many 
Viennese artists were, of course, included, among them Klimt and Kokoschka, but the paintings 
by Van Gogh. Matisse. Vlaminck. Bonnard. Munch and others must have made a tremendous 
impression on the nineteen year old Schiele. Works by these modern masters had rarely been 
exhibited in Vienna and their liberating effect swept through the ateliers of the younger artists 
in the city. By the following year Schiele's personality had found its individual means of expression. 

Of the four chief subject categories of paintings, only portraiture is found in proportionally 
equal numbers in both painting and drawing. Portraits appear in Schiele's work throughout his 
life from the youthful Self-Portrait of 1907 to that of his friend and fellow artist Paris von Giitersloh 
of 1918. One of the first portraits by Schiele after the Kunstschau 1909 was the Portrait of Eduard 
Kosmack, painted in 1910. It marks a distinct departure from the Klimt-inspired Portrait of Gerta 
Schiele of the previous year. Kosmack is depicted in a pose which is strongly reminiscent of that 
of the adolescent nude in Edvard Munch's various versions of Puberty, executed from 1886 — 1894 
(see also Schiele's earlier Portrait of Poldi Lodzinskx). The body is rigid and tense. The white of 
the shirt collar, the lapels, emphasized by being darker than the rest of the suit, and the large \ 
formed by Kosmack's arms establish a repetitive motif which culminates in his hands clasped 
tightly together between his thighs. The eyes staring widely at the viewer and the nervously 
moving, sharply angular silhouette increase the tension. A strange double-toned, gray and white 
background pushes the sitter forward. The wilting sunflowers by Kosmack"s side are the only 
reference to a natural environment. His clothing is made up of compartments defined by heavy 
solid folds. There is a fairly active paint surface within each area even though the over-all effect 
is dominated by the symmetrical silhouette which tends to mitigate the internal movement. 
Schiele has portrayed his sitter as a man who has consciously and, one feels, only temporarily 
suppressed his most violent emotions. 

The Portrait of Paris von Giitersloh, painted eight years later, again depicts a sitter frontally 
but, despite the staring eves and the strange gestures, the tension has been somewhat relaxed. 
As in the earlier portrait, von Giitersloh does not exist in a specific place, but now the background 
is alive with paint and movement as is the sitter himself. There is a greater sense of weight and 
volume which is supported by a few lines and brushstrokes indicating a chair. One of the most 



65 



bizarre but expressive devices which Schiele employed in early portraits, e.g., Portrait of the Painter 
Zakovsek and Seated Model with Raised Arms, was to omit the chair or other means of support 
for his figures. Consequentlv. poses which are quite normal when seen in the context of such supports, 
become inexplicable and extremely disquieting without them. 

To use the word "landscape" to describe the scenes of nature painted by the artist between 
1910 and 1918 is perhaps to use a misnomer; his mature paintings of Nature are primarily depictions 
of trees (during his student days he had painted numerous conventional landscapes in which 
short, impressionistic brushstrokes were used, but rarely do these works forecast the linearity 
which was soon to become dominant). The artist often compared trees and plants and their 
attributes to human beings. In 1913 he wrote to one of his patrons: "... I make studies also but 
I find and know that sketching after Nature is meaningless for me; because I paint better pictures 
after memory, as a vision of the landscape. Now I am observing primarily the physical movement 
of mountains, water, trees and flowers. One is reminded everywhere of similar movements in human 
bodies, in similar emotions of joy and suffering in plants." The trees which he paints are usually 
saplings and most often, as in Winter Trees or Autumn Sun, they are tied to an upright stick 
which provides support. The sapling at the right in the latter painting would be helpless and could 
not long exist without assistance. The three gesturing trees of Autumn Trees have limbs and branches 
which are exactly alike; the only difference is the color of the support of the middle tree which 
reaches toward heaven with its companions. The small wedge of leaf-covered earth seems to indicate 
the top of a hill. One finds it difficult to resist associating the three trees with the Three Crosses 
on Golgotha. In a painting of the following year, Mt. Calvary (Nirenstein 121 -- not in the 
exhibition), Schiele portrays the Three Crosses (that of Christ rising higher than the others) against 
a horizon. A procession of barren trees moves in single file past the crosses. The tree nearest Christ 
bows at a 45 degree angle, its naked branches extended toward Christ. The identification of the 
trees as pilgrims is given further credibility by the inclusion of a wayfarer's shrine at the right. 
To interpret all of Schiele's tree paintings in religious terms would certainly be a mistake: however, 
there is sufficient evidence — in letters and in the paintings themselves — to interpret his trees 
anthropomorphicalh . 

Schiele had a predilection for autumn as is demonstrated by the titles of many of his 
paintings. "... I love autumn; not only as a season of the year, but also as a condition of man 
and things — and therefore cities also. The soft and gentle melancholy by which Nature seems 
entwined in the autumn breathes out even from old walls, fills the heart with sadness and thereby 
reminds us that we are only pilgrims on this earth". 4 This mood is reflected in his paintings of 
cities and houses. Buildings worn by time continue to stand proudly. Rarely is there any form 
of life in Schiele's cities and when humans do make an appearance, as in The Edge of Town, they 
are not individuals but only minor attributes of the cities they've created. Nothing moves. The 
towns seem to exist in a vacuum not unlike archeological discoveries intended for a museum. 
Dcuil City was the title given to a painting of the old Bohemian town of Ixrumau (present-day 
Ceskv Krumlov) which he often visited. 

A postcard sent to his wife bears a photograph of the town of Raltcnberg. On the photograph 
Schiele placed an X on top of a hillside indicating the position from which he had made two drawings 
of the town. The view from above looking down on the multi-colored painted roofs oi the old houses 



66 



appears frequently. The panoramic bird's-eye view which one associates with Kokoschkas famous 
series of citvscapes of the 1920's does not apply, however, to Schiele for he often paints only a few 
blocks of a town. The rigid linearity of his canvases does not induce speculation as to what lies 
beyond the edges of the painting. 

On the above-mentioned postcard the artist had written: "Cubist city — very nice." Schiele's 
biographer and friend, Arthur Roessler, has written that the artist conceived of his citvscapes 
architectonically: a painting was constructed in a manner similar to the construction of a building.-"' 
Such a painting as The City Stein of 1913 may have been thought of as being cubistic because 
of the geometrically simplified forms of buildings and hillside, but the volumetric block-like aspect 
of Cubism is lacking. Since The Hermits, 1912, was also considered cubistic by one of the Viennese 
art critics, it is evident that there was some confusion about the meaning of the word. Presumably 
the compartmentalization of the hermits' robes and the lines emanating from the flowers led to 
the epithet. This tendency toward abstraction — carried further in Agony (Nirenstein 108 — not in 
the exhibition) — may have been a result of Schiele's first brief trip to Munich in 1912 where he 
could have seen Cubist-inspired works by Marc, Macke. and other artists. 6 Picasso and Braque 
had exhibited in 1912 at the second Blue Rider exhibit at the Galerie Hans Goltz; Goltz was 
Schiele's dealer in Munich and there is, of course, a good possibility that Cubist works would have 
been in stock for Schiele to examine while he was there. 

Allegories, visionary themes, and such universal subjects as birth, life, and death comprise 
the fourth category of Schiele's subject matter. One of the earliest and most poignant of these 
works is Dead Mother I. Painted just prior to Christmas, 1910, the theme appears to have been 
borrowed from Munch or Max Klinger, but the composition almost certainly stems from Klimt's 
The Family of the same vear. However, the feelings evoked by the two paintings are totally different. 
A sense of relative calm pervades Klimt's painting of a mother and her two children sleeping. 
Schiele, in a much smaller format, has focused on the face and hands of the infant and its dead 
mother. The initial effect is one of horror. The dull greens and browns of the mother's decaying 
flesh, the elongated skeletal hand, the sharp, bony lines of jaw and chin, and the deep eye sockets 
create a sense of doom and despair. In contrast, the infant is painted in reds and oranges, colors 
of life and blood. The infant is enclosed within an irregular circle which, in the pictorial context 
of the painting, may be interpreted as a womb. This interpretation is supported by the painting 
Dead Mother II (Birth of a Genius) (Nirenstein 85 — not in the exhibition) of the following year. 
In the latter work the mother's face is not obscured, and the womb has been located in the middle 
of the thorax (as in Dead Mother I only the upper part of the torso has been depicted) ; the infant's 
right hand has already emerged from its mother's body. 7 The mother has fulfilled her mission 
on earth and now succumbs as the life which she created begins its cycle of existence. Though 
the subject is a universal one, Schiele's letters and the writings of Roessler suggest that several 
of the Mother series — including Blind Mother — may have symbolized the artist's personal problems 
involving independence from familial ties. 



67 



Toward the end of his life Schiele had begun plans for a mausoleum which was to have 
been decorated with frescoes representing Death, the Stages of Life, Religion, Earthly Existence 
and other similar subjects. According to the painter Johannes Fischer who frequented Schiele's 
studio at this time, all of Schiele's later paintings were only studies for the monumental fresco 
cycle. The paintings Three Standing Female Nudes and Two Crouching Women are probabK 
such studies. There are pencil sketches which relate to these paintings; however, the sketches 
often contain additional figures and the iconographv appears to be more complex than is suggested 
by the paintings. Unfortunately, the meanings of many of the later works mav remain ambiguous 
in their fragmented state as details for the mausoleum because death prevented the artist from 
realizing his plans. 

The following supposedly is a statement made by the artist on his deathbed: "After my 
death, sooner or later, people will undoubtedly praise me and admire my art". 8 That prediction 
has already come true insofar as his drawings and watercolors are concerned. It is to be hoped 
that exhibitions such as the present one will bring greater recognition to and admiration for the painter 
Egon Schiele. 



NOTES 



The author wishes to acknowledge the Graphische Sammlung Albertina for allowing him access to some 
letters by and other documents on Schiele which being in the process of organization are not yet available 
to the public. 

1. Wolfgang Fischer, "Egon Schiele and the Spirit of Vienna before 1918," in Schiele exhibition catalogue, 
Marlborough Fine Art Limited, London: 1964, p. 6. 

2. Otto Benesch, "Egon Schiele," Art International, II, nos. 9/10, p. 75. 

3. For the text of the petition see Arthur Roessler, Anton Faistiuer — Beitrdge zur Lebens- und Schajfensgeschichte 
eines oslerreichischen Kiinstlers, Vienna, Biichergilde Gutenberg, 1947, pp. 15 ff. 

4. Arthur Roessler, Erinnerungen an Egon Schiele, 2nd ed., Vienna, Wiener Volksbuchverlag, 1948, p. 66. 

5. Roessler, Erinnerungen . . ., p. 65. 

6. Egon Schiele, Briefe und Prosa von Egon Schiele, ed. by Arthur Roessler. Vienna, Richard Lanyi, 1921, letter 
to Dr. Oskar Reichel, dated 17 August 1912, p. 147. 

7. The artist Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh, wife of the renowned architect, had painted a gesso relief in 1902 
titled Motherhood (Glasgow School of Art). A womb-like form enclosing a nude baby is centered in the billowing 
skirt of one of the women in the painting; there is no question that a womb is being depicted. The artist had 
exhibited three works in the Kunstschau 1909 (the catalogue elaborates no further). The Mackintoshes had been 
very popular and much admired in Vienna since the turn of the century. During a six-week stay in the city, 
they had designed a salon for the residence of Fritz Warndorfer, one of the leaders of the Wiener Werkstatte, 
Vienna's contribution to art nouveau fashion and design. (Ludwig Hevesi, Altkunst — Neukunst Wien 1894 — 1908, 
Vienna, Carl Konegen, 1909, pp. 221 ff.) Whether Schiele could have seen Motherhood is questionable; however, 
he could have been familiar with other works by the artist in which like motifs were used. 

8. Hans Ankwicz von Kleehoven, "Egon Schiele (1890 — 1918)," Das Kunsluerk, V, no. 3, 1951, p. 29. 



PAIXTMiS l\ THE EXHIBIT 



69 




22 






CATALOGUE 



Entries in this catalogue are chronological. References to 
literature and exhibitions under each heading are abbreviated, 
and may be found in detail in the documentation section 
which follows on page 118. 



SELF PORTRAIT. 1907. 

Oil on paper, 121x124/ (32.4x31.2 cm.). 

Nol -igiied ni dated. 

Lent by Galerie St. Etienne, New York. 

Provenance: Estate of the arti^i. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1960, 

no. 1. 

University Art Gallery, University of California, 

Berkeley, 1963, no. 20. 
Literature: nirenstein, o. Egon Schiele, Berlin, Vienna, 

Leipzig, 1930, no. 20. 



PORTRAIT OF POLDI LODZINSKY. 1908. (Sketch for 

the Stoclet Palace, Brussels.) 

Oil on canvas, 43 X 144/ (109 X 36 cm.). 

Signed and dated 1. 1. "E. S. 08". 

Collection Dr. and Mrs. Ferdinand Eckhardt, Winnipeg. 

Exhibitions: Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna, 1948. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna, 1948, no. 16. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1960, 

no. 7. 
Literature: NIRENSTEIN, O., no. 61. 




STUDY OF A NUDE. 1908. 

Oil on canvas, 9J X 7 " (24.4 X 18 cm.). 

Signed and dated 1. I. "Schiele, Egon 08". Signed and entitled 

on reverse. 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Donald S. Stralem, New York. 

Exhibitions: Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., London, 196 1. no. 2. 

Literature: benesch, O. "Egon Schiele 2: The Artist", 

Studio International, London. October 1964. 

ill. p. 175. 



4. PORTRAIT OF GERTA SCHIELE. 1909. 
Oil on canvas, 54jx54j" (139X 139 cm.). 
Signed and dated u. r. "E. S. 1909". 
Collection Yiktor Fogarassy. Graz. 
Provenance: Marie Schiele. Vienna. 

Anton Peschka, Vienna. 

Tina Klein, Vienna. 

\\ . Gurlitt. Berlin. 
Exhibitions: Neue Galerie, Vienna. 1948. no. 15. 

Wien urn 1900. Vienna, 1964. no. 97 
Literature: NIRENSTEIN, o.. no. r>2. 



72 









73 





SELF PORTRAIT I. 1909. 

Oil on canvas, 43^x17^" (110x45.3 cm.). 

Signed and dated u. 1. "E. Sehiele 09". 

Lent by Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., London. 

Provenance: Arch. E. J. Wimmer, Vienna. 

Exhibitions: Neue Galerie, Vienna, 1948, no. 14. 

Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., London, 1964, 

no. 4. 
Literature: nirenstein, o., no. 48. 



SELF PORTRAIT II. 1909. 

Oil on canvas, 29x111" (73.5x29.2 cm.). 

Not signed or dated. 

Collection Viktor Fogarassy, Graz. 

Provenance: Fritz Lunzer, Vienna. 

Exhibitions: Wien urn 1900, Vienna, 1964, no. 98. 

Literature: nirenstein, o., no. 55. 



7. DEAD MOTHER I. 1910. 

Oil on wood, 12|x 10 j" (32.4X 25.8 cm.). 
Signed and dated u. r. "S. 10". 
Collection Dr. Rudolf Leopold, Vienna. 
Provenance: Arthur Roessler, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Hagenbund, Vienna, 1912, no. 238. 

Galerie Wiirthle, Vienna, 1925, no. 7. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928, no. 10. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna. 1948, no. 19. 

Stedelijk Museum. Amsterdam, 1956, no. 221. 

Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., London, 1964, 

no. 8. 
Literature: roessler, a. Kritische Fragmente, Vienna, 1918. 

p. 58. 

karpfen, F. Das Egon-Schiele-Buch, Vienna, 

1921. pi. 11. 

NIRENSTEIN, O., no. 75. 

grohmann, w. "Sehiele, Egon", U. Thieme- 

F. Becker, Leipzig, vol. XXX, 1936, p. 59. 

roessler, A. Erinnerungen an Egon Sehiele, 

Vienna, 1948, ill. 

sciimidt, G. Neue Malcrei in Osterreich, Vienna. 

1956, pi. 65. 

BREICHA, o. and FR1TSCH. G. cds. Finale and 

Aufiakt, men 1898- 1914, Salzburg. 1964. ill. 

p. 206. 



74 






PORTRAIT OF EDUARD KOSMACK. 1910. 
Oil on canvas, 39+ X 39|" (100 X 100 cm.). 
Signed and dated c. 1. "S. 10". 
Collection Osterreichische Galerie. Vienna. 
Provenance: Eduard Kosmack, Modling. 

Ferdinand Eekhardt, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Museum fur Kunst und Industrie, Vienna, 1927, 

no. 23. 

Hagenbund, \ ienna, 1928, no. 13. 

Kunsthalle. Dusseldorf, 1930, no. 153. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna, 1948, no. 17. 

Kunsthalle. Dusseldorf, 1959. 

Osterreichische Galerie, Vienna, 1959. 

Zeugnisse der Angst in der modernen Kunst, 

Darmstadt, 1963. 
Literature: gutersloh, p. von. Egon Schiele, Vienna, 1915. 

IMIRENSTEIN, O., no. 70. 

mitsch, E. Egon Schiele. Salzburg, 1961, p. 8, 

ill. p. 27. 

breicha, o. and fritsch, G. eds. Finale und 

Auftakt, Wien 1898-1914, Salzburg, 1964, ill. 

p. 205. 



PORTRAIT OF THE PAINTER ZAKOVSEK. 1910. 

Oil on canvas, 39Vx35-V" (100x89.8 cm.). 

Signed and dated 1. 1. "S. 10". 

Collection Dr. Albert W. Grokoest, New York. 

Provenance: Carl von Reiningbaus, Vienna. 

Rolf Stenersen, Oslo. 
Exhibitions: Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928, no. 8. 

E. & A. Silberman Galleries, New York, 1959, 

no. 14 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Roston, 1960, 

no. 11. 

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 1962, 

no. 84. 
Literature: MRENSTEIN", O., no. 68. 



hi 



75 




11 



10. RED EARTH. 1910. 

Oil on canvas, 20£x 19j" (52x50 cm.). 

Signed and dated u. 1. "S. 10". 

Lent by Galerie St. Etienne, New York. 

Provenance : Arthur Stemmer, Vienna. 

Exhibitions: Galerie Wiirthle, Vienna, 1925, no. 8. 

Galerie Gurlitt, Berlin, 1926, no. 3. 

M. Goldschmidt and Co., Frankfurt, 1926. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1960, 

no. 9. 

University Art Gallery, University of California. 

Berkeley, 1963, no. 29. 
Literature: GUTERsloii, p. von. Egon Schick', Vienna, 1915. 

NIRENSTEIN, O., no. 60. 



11. SEATED MODEL WITH RAISED ARMS. 1910. 
Tempera and oil on canvas, 60x59" (152 X 150 cm.). 
Not signed or dated. 
Collection Dr. Rudolf Leopold, Vienna. 
Provenance: Carl Reiuinghaus. Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Haus der Kunst, Munich, 1961, no. 480. 

Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., London, 1964, no. 7. 
Literature: nirenstein, o., no. 59. 



76 





12 



14 



12. THE DEAD CITY. 1910. 

Tempera on paper, 16^x12^" (41.2 X 30.8 cm.). 
Signed and dated 1. r. "Schiele 10". 
Private Collection, U.S.A. 
Provenance: Arthur Roessler, \ienna. 
Exhibitions: Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928, no. 11. 

Institute of Contemporary Art. Boston, 1960. 

no. 12. 
Literature: gutersloh. p. VON. Egon Schiele, Vienna, 1915. 

R[oessler], A. "Egon Schiele". Bildende Kiinstler. 

vol. 3, 1911, ill. 

karpfen, F. Das Egon-Schiele-Buch. Vienna, 

1921, pi. 23. 

NIRENSTEIN, O., no. 63. 



14. DEAD CITY I. 1911. 

Oil on wood, 14fxll|" (37.1x29.9 cm.). 
Signed and dated u. r. "Egon Schiele 1911". 
Collection Dr. Rudolf Leopold, Vienna. 
Provenance: Private Collection, Vienna. 

Arthur Roessler, V ienna. 

Dr. Alfred Spitzcr. Vienna. 

Fritz Grunbaum, \ ienna. 
Exhibitions: Hagenbund, Vienna, 1912, no. 237. 

Galerie Wiirthle, Vienna, 1925, no. 11. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928. no. 20. 

Kiinstlerhaus, Vienna, 1930. 

Gutekunst und Klipstein, Bern, 1956, no. 1. 

Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., London, 1964, 

no. 12. 
Literature: R[oessler], A. "Egon Schiele". Bildende Kiinstler, 

vol. 3. 1911. p. 109. 

karpfen. F. Das Egon-Schiele-Buch. Vienna. 

1921. pi. 24. 

isirenstein, o., no. 94. 



77 




13. AUTUMN TREES. 1911. 

Oil on canvas, 311x314" (80.1x80.1 cm.). 
Signed and dated 1. r. "Egon Schiele 1911". 
Collection Viktor Fogarassy, Graz. 
Provenance: Dr. Oskar Reichel, Vienna. 

Professor Bruno Sykora, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Hagenbund, Vienna, 1912, no. 239. 

Secession, Vienna, 1912—13. 

Kunstsalon Arnot, Vienna, 1914, no. 4. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928, no. 28. 

Wien urn 1900, Vienna, 1964, no. 102. 
Literature: nirensteiin, 0., no. 97. 

BRE1CHA, o. and FMTSCH, G. eds. Finale unit 

Auftakt, Wien 1898-1914, Salzburg. 1964, ill. 

p. 206. 



78 





15 



16 



15. MOTHER AND DEATH. 1911. 

Oil on canvas, 39-^x39+" (lOOx 100 cm.). 
Signed and dated 1. e. "Egon Schiele 1911". 
Collection Narodni Galerie, Prague. 
Provenance: Dr. Oskar Reichel, Vienna. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna. 

Wolko Gartenberg, Debica. 
Exhibitions: Neue Galerie, Vienna, 1923, no. 13. 

Galerie Gurlitt, Berlin, 1926, no. 7. 

M. Goldschmldt and Co., Frankfurt, 1926. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928, no. 30. 

Narodni Galerie, Prague. 1961, no. 30. 

Diim Umeni Mesta Brno. Brno, 1963, no. 64. 
Literature: nirenstein, O., no. 87. 

zemina, J. "Osterreichisehe Kunst des 20. Jahr- 

hunderts in der CSSR", Alte und Moderne 

Kunst, Vienna, March— April. 1963, p. 49. 



16. STILL LIFE WITH CIGARETTES I. 1911. 
Oil on wood. 13fxl0f" (34 X 27.5 cm.). 

Signed and dated 1. r. "Egon Schiele 1911". 
Collection Narodni Galerie, Prague. 
Provenance: Einil Toepfer, Vienna. 
Literature: nirenstein, o., no. 92. 



79 





17 



19 



17. SUNFLOWERS I. 1911. 

Oil on canvas, 35^X 31|" (90.4x80.5 cm.). 
Signed and dated 1. 1. "Egon Sehiele 1911". 
Collection Osterreichische Galerie, Vienna. 
Provenance: Arthur Roessler, Vienna. 

Dr. Alfred Spitzer, Vienna. 

Fritz Grunbaum, Vienna. 

Dr. Hermann Trenkwald, Vienna, 1924. 
Exhibitions: Neukunstgruppe Wien, Budapest, 1911. 

Ausstellung moderncr osterreichischer Kunst in 

den Niederlanden, The Hague. Rotterdam, 

Amsterdam, 1927-28, no. 22. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928, no. 27. 

Biennale, Venice, 1948, no. 22. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna, 1948, no. 22. 

Bienal, Sao Paulo, 1957, p. 105, no. 28. 
Literature: nirenstein, o., no. 93. 

grohmann, w. "Sehiele, Egon", U. Thieme- 

F. Becker, Leipzig, 1936, p. 59. 

werner, A. "Rediscovering Austrian Art", 

Arts, New York, April 1964, p. 57. ill. 



19. THE PROPHET. 1911. 

Oil on canvas, 43-J.X 19^" (1 10.3 X 50.3 cm.). 
Signed and dated u. 1. "S. 11". 

Lent by Marlborough — Gerson Gallery, New York. 
Provenance: Dr. Oskar Reichel, Vienna. 

Arthur Stemmer, Vienna. 

Selected Artists Galleries, New York. 
Exhibitions: Kunstsalon, Pisco, 1909. 

Galerie Gurlitt. Berlin. 1926. no. 6. 

M. Goldschmidt and Co., Frankfurt, 1926. 

Hagenbund, Vienna. 1928, no. 19. 

Institute of Contemporary Art. Boston. 1960. 

no. 18. 

University Art Gallery. The University of 

California, Berkeley, 1963, no. 37. 
Literature: gutersloh, p. von. Egon Sehiele, Vienna. 1915. 

NIRENSTEIN, O., no. 76. 

CHH>i>, ii. "A Neglected Expressionist Move- 
ment Viennese 1910—1924", Arlforum. 

San Francisco, 1963, p. 25. 



8(1 




18 



18. THE POET. 1911. 

Oil on canvas, 31 + x31|" (8(1.1x79.7 cm.). 
Signed and dated u. 1. "S. 11". 
Collection Dr. Rudolf Leopold, Vienna. 
Provenance: Arthur Stemmer, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Kunstsalon Golz, Munich. 1913. 

Galerie Wurthle, Vienna, 1925, no. 15. 

Galerie Gurlitt, Berlin, 1926, no. 5. 

M. Goldschmidt and Co., Frankfurt, 1926. 

Hagenbund, Vienna. 1928, no. 18. 

Marlborough Fine Art Ltd.. London, 1964, 

no. 13. 
Literature: gutehsi.oh, p. von. Egon Srhiele, Vienna, 1915. 

NIRENSTEIN, 0., no. 78. 



81 




20 



20. THE SELF-SEER II (DEATH AND MAN). 1911. 
Oil on canvas, 31|x3iy (80.3x80 cm.). 
Signed and dated 1. 1. "S. 11". 
Collection Dr. Rudolf Leopold, Vienna. 
Provenance: Max Hevesi, Vienna. 

Otto Nirenstein, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Neue Galerie, Vienna, 1923, no. 8. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928, no. 17. 

Kunsthaus, Zurich, 1930. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1911. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1948, no. 2 

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1956, no. 222. 

Hans der kiinst, Munich, 1964, no. 481. 

Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., London, 1964, 

no. 10. 
Literature: nirenstein, o., no. 77. 

"Egon Sehielc", Art News, New York, April 

1918, p. 51. 

SELZ, P. German Expressionist Painting, Berkeley 

and Los Angeles, 1957, pp. 157-159. 



82 





21. AUTUMN SUN. 1912. 

Oil on canvas, 31-Vx 314" (79.8 X 80.1 cm.). 
Signed and dated c. r. "Egon Schiele 1912". 
Collection Dr. and Mrs. Otto Kallir, New York. 
Provenance: August Vvaerndorfer, Vienna. 

Guido Arnot, Vienna. 

Otto Nirenstein, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Ausstellung Osterreichischer Kunst, Stockholm, 

1917. 

Hagenbund. Vienna, 1928, no. 11. 

Kunsthaus, Zurich, 1930. 

Galerie St. Etienne. New York, 1941. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1948, no. 3. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1960, 

no. 26. 
Literature: nirenstein, o., no. 117. 

SELZ, P. German Expressionist Painting, Berkeley 

and Los \ngeles. 1957. pi. 57. 



TREE IN AUTUMN BREEZE. 1912. 

(Illustration page 69.) 

Oil on canvas, 3Hx31+/' (80x80 cm.). 

Signed and dated c. r. "Egon Schiele 1912". 

Collection Dr. Rudolf Leopold, Vienna. 

Provenance: Magda Mautner von Markhof, Vienna. 

Grasmeyer. Salzburg. 
Exhibitions: Haus der Kunst, Munich, 1964, no. 482. 

Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., London, 1964, 

no. 14. 
Literature: nirenstein, o., no. 118. 

SCHMIDT, G. Neue Malerei in Osterreieh. Vienna, 

1956, pi. 67. 



THE BOAT. c. 1912. 

Oil on canvas, 27|x27|" (70.5x70.5 cm.). 

Not signed or dated. 

Private Collection, U.S.A. 

Exhibitions: Galerie St. Etienne. New Vork, 1964, no. 4. 



83 




23 



23. CARDINAL AND NUN. 1912. 

Oil on canvas, 27-Vx3iy (69.8x80.1 cm.). 
Signed and dated 1. r. "Egon Schiele 1912". 
Collection Dr. Rudolf Leopold, Vienna. 
Provenance: Dr. Heinrich Riger, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Galerie Wiirthle, Vienna, 1925, no. 17. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928, no. 31. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna, 1948, no. 27. 

Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., London, 1964, 

no. 16. 
Literature: nirenstein, o., no. 107. 



84 




24 



24. MOTHER AND CHILD. 1912. 

Oil on wood. 14+xllJ" (36.7x30 cm.). 
Signed and dated c. r. "Egon Schiele 1912". 
Collection Dr. Rudolf Leopold. Vienna. 
Provenance: Emil Toepfer, Vienna. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna. 

Professor Paul Clairmont. Zurich. 
Exhibitions: Sonderbund, Cologne, 1913. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna. 1923, no. 22. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928, no. 32. 

Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., London, 1964, 

no. 15. 
Literature: NIRENSTEIN, o., no. 111. 



26. THE HERMITS. 1912. (Illustration page 13.) 
Oil on canvas. 71Lx71" (181x180.5 cm.). 
Signed and dated 1. I. "Egon Schiele 1912". 
Collection Dr. Rudolf Leopold, Vienna. 
Provenance: Estate of the artist. Vienna. 

Arthur Stemmer, \ienna. 
Exhibitions: Hagenbund, Vienna. 1912. no. 226. 

Kunstsalon Golz. Munich. 1913, no. 18. 

Galerie Wurthle, Vienna. 1925, no. 23. 

M. Goldschmidt and Co.. Frankfurt, 1926. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928, no. 41a. 

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1956, no. 223. 

Marlborough Fine Art Ltd.. London, 1964, 

no. 17. 
Literature: karpfen. f. Das Eoon-Schiele-Buch. Vienna. 

1921.pl. 10. 

NIRENSTEIN. O.. no. 106. 

SCHMIDT, G. Neue Malerei in Osterreich, Vienna, 

1956. pi. 66. 



85 





28 



27. WINTER TREES. 1912. 

Oil on canvas, 31ix31A/' (80.3 X 80 cm.). 
Signed and dated u. 1. "Egon Schiele 1912". 
Private Collection, Vienna. 
Provenance: Arthur Roessler, Vienna. 

F. A. Horta, Vienna. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Hagenbund, Vienna, 1912, no. 235. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna, 1923, no. 10. 

Ausstellung Moderner Osterreichischer Kunst in 

den Niederlanden, The Hague, Rotterdam. 

Amsterdam, 1927 — 28, no. 19. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928, no. 36. 

Kunsthaus, Zurich, 1930. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna, 1948, no. 34. 

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1956, no. 225. 

MRENSTEIN, O., no. 119. 



Literature: 



SAW MILL. 1913. 

Oil on canvas, 31 + X 35|" (80.1 X 89.8 cm.). 
Signed and dated 1. r. "Egon Schiele 1913". 
Collection Viktor Fogarassy, Graz. 
Provenance: Franz Hauer, Vienna. 

Guido Arnot, Vienna. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Kunstsalon Arnot, Vienna. 1914, no. 3. 

Galerie Gurlitt, Berlin, 1926, no. 15. 

Ausstellung Moderner Osterreichischer Kunst in 

den Niederlanden, The Hague. Rotterdam. 

Amsterdam, 1927 — 28, no. 21. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928, no. 47. 

Kunsthaus, Zurich, 1930. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1941. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1948, no. I. 

Wien urn 1900. Vienna. 1964. no. 104. 

Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., London. 1964. 

no. 18. 
Literature: nirenstein, 0., no. 133. 



86 





29 



30 



29. SETTING SUN. 1913. 

Oil on canvas, 35x35" (89.3x89.2 cm.). 
Signed and dated c. r. "Egon Schiele 1913". 
Collection Dr. Rudolf Leopold, Vienna. 
Provenance: Arthur Roessler, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Kunstsalon Golz, Munich. 1913, no. 2. 

Kunstsalon Arnot, 1914, no. 9. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928, no. 44. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna. 1948, no. 37. 
Literature: nirenstein, o., no. 131. 



30. SMALL TOWN III. (Town on The Black River.) 1913. 
Oil on canvas, 351x354/ (90x90 cm.). 
Signed and dated 1. r. "Egon Schiele 1913". 
Collection \iktor Fogarassy, Graz. 
Provenance: Dr. M. Jung, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Wien um 1900, \ ienna, 1964, no. 105. 

Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., London. 1964. 

no. 21. 
Literature: nirenstein, o.. no. XXVIII. 



87 





31 



33 



31. STEIN ON THE DANUBE. 1913. 

Encaustic on canvas, 35|x35|" (90.4 X 90.4 cm.). 
Signed and dated 1. r. "Egon Schiele 1913". 
Collection Dr. Rudolf Leopold, Vienna. 
Provenance: Franz Hauer, Vienna. 

Heinrich Mayer, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Kunstsalon Arnot, Vienna, 1914 — 15, no. 16. 

Ausstellung Osterreichischer Kunst, Stockholm, 

1917. 

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1956, no. 226. 

Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., London, 1964, 

no. 19. 
Literature: nirenstein, o., no. 125. 



33. THE CITY STEIN II. 1913. 

Oil on canvas, 35|x35|" (89.8x89.6 cm.). 
Signed and dated u. r. "Egon Schiele 1913". 
Private Collection, LT.S.A. 
Provenance: Franz Hauer, Vienna. 

Guido Arnot, Vienna. 

Otto Nirenstein, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Kunstsalon Arnot, Vienna, 1914, no. 14. 

Ausstellung Osterreichischer Kunst, Stockholm. 

1917. 

Galerie Gurlitt, Berlin. 1926. no. 10. 

Ausstellung Moderner Osterreichischer Kunst in 

den Niederlanden, The Hague, Rotterdam, 

Amsterdam, 1927-28, no. 24. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928, no. 49. 

Kunsthaus, Zurich, 1930. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York. 1964, no. 42. 
Literature: Wendingen, special volume. "Osterreichische 

Kunst", Amsterdam. 1927. p. 7. 

NIRENSTEIN, O., no. 126. 




32 



32. THE BRIDGE. 1913. 

Oil on canvas, 35i,x35+/' (89.7x90 cm.). 

Signed and dated 1. 1. "Egon Schiele 1913". 

Collection Dr. and Mrs. Otto Kallir, New York. 

Provenance: Dr. Oskar Reichel, Vienna. 

Exhibitions: Grofie Deutsche Kunstausstellung, Diisseldorf, 

1913. 

Kunstsalon Arnot, Vienna, 1914, no. 5. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna, 1923, no. 7. 

Ausstellung Moderner Osterreichischer Kunst in 

den Niederlanden, The Hague, Rotterdam, 

Amsterdam, 1927 — 28, no. 20. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928, no. 46. 

Kunsthaus, Zurich, 1930. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1941. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1948, no. 5. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1960, 

no. 30. 

University Art Gallery, University of California, 

Berkeley, 1963, no. 54. 



Literature: IT endingen, special volume, "Osterreichische 
Kunst", Amsterdam, 1927, p. 6. 
NIRENSTEIN, O., no. 123. 

selz, P. German Expressionist Painting, Berkeley 
and Los Angeles, 1957, p. 158, pi. 158. 
"Egon Schiele", Art News, New York, Novem- 
ber 1960, p. 12. 

nordland, G. "Europe in California", Arts, 
New York. April 1963. p. 17. 



89 




34 



34. BLIND MOTHER I. 1911, 

Encaustic on canvas, 39£x47f " (99.5 x 120.4 cm.). 
Signed and dated 1. r. "Egon Schiele 191 I". 
Collection Dr. Rudolf Leopold. Vienna. 
Provenance: Adolf Neufeld, Vienna. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Koningsplatz, Munich, 191 1. 

Kunstsalon Arnot, Vienna, 1914, no. 8. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna, 1923. no. 16. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928, no. 56. 

Kunsthaus. Zurich, 1930. 

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam. 1956. no. 227. 

Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., London. 1964. 

no. 20, ill. p. 35. 
Literature: NIRENSTEIN, O., no. 139. 



90 






:■:■;:. 









91 




36 



35. PORTRAIT OF FRIEDERICKE MARIA BEER. 1914. 
Oil on canvas, 76 X 47 " (180 X 60 cm.). 
Signed and dated 1. 1. "Egon Schiele 1914". 
Collection Federica Beer-Monti, New York and Vienna. 

Exhibitions: Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1948, no. 6. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1960, 

no. 40. 
Literature: nirenstein, o., no. XXXIII. 



36. THE CITY. 1914. 

Encaustic on canvas, 38-Vx 474/ (98x 120 cm.). 
Signed and dated 1. r. "Egon Schiele 1914". 
Collection Dr. Rudolf Leopold, Vienna. 
Provenance: Marie Hora, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Neue Galerie, Vienna, 1948, no. 39. 

Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., London. 

no. 23. 
Literature: nirenstein, O., no. 144. 



1964. 



92 




37 



37. YELLOW CITY. 1914. 

Oil on canvas, 42£x55" (HOx 140 cm.). 

Signed and dated 1. 1. "Egon Schiele 1914". 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Frederick M. Mayer, New York. 

Provenance: Private Collection, St. Moritz, Switzerland. 

Exhibitions: Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1960, 
no. 39. 

The Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, 1964, 
no. 211. 

Literature: nirenstein, o., no. XXXVI. 

WERNER, A. "Schiele and Austrian Expres- 
sionism", Arts, New York, October 1960, 
p. 49, ill. 



38. POBTRAIT OF THE ARTIST'S WIFE EDITH. 1915. 
Encaustic on canvas, 701x434/ (180x110 cm.). 
Signed and dated 1. r. "Egon Schiele 1915". 
Collection Gemeentemuseum, The Hague. 
Provenance: Guido Arnot, Vienna. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Galerie Gurlitt, Berlin, 1926, no. 23. 

Ausstellung Moderner Osterreichischer Kunst in 

den Niederlanden, The Hague, Rotterdam, 

Amsterdam, 1927-28, no. 26. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1960, 

no. 48. 
Literature: Mededeelingen II van den Dienst voor Kunst en 

Wetenschuppen der Gemeente's-Gravenhage, April 

1928, p. 127-28 ill. p. 87. 

NIRENSTEIN, O. no. 151. 

ROESSLER, A. Erinnerungen an Egon Schiele, 

Vienna, 1918, ill. 

BEEREN, w. A. L. Beeldi'erhall, Een weg door de 

moderne Kunst, Amsterdam, 1962. 



93 




38 



94 



-»**-,***, . 




39 



39. SINGLE HOUSES. 1915. 

Oil on canvas, 43x554/ (109. 2x 140.2 cm.). 
Signed and dated c. r. "Egon Schielc 1915". 
Collection Viktor Fogarassy, Graz. 
Provenance: F. A. Harta, Vienna. 

Bronzia Roller, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Ausstellung Osterreichischer Kunst, Stockholm, 

1917. 

Secession, Vienna, 1918, no. 9. 

kiinstlerhaus, Vienna, 1925, no. 25. 

Ausstellung Moderner Osterreichischer Kunst in 

den Niederlanden, The Hague, Rotterdam, 

Amsterdam, 1927-28, no. 25. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928, no. 61. 

kunsthaus, Zurich, 1930. 

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1956, no. 230. 
Literature: karpfen, f. Dos Egon-Schiele-Buch, Vienna, 

1921, pi. 26. 

II endingen, special volume, "Osterreichische 

Kunst", Amsterdam, 1927, p. 9. 

NIRENSTEIN, O., 110. 148. 



95 




-10 



40. PAINTING OF AN OLD MAN (J. HARMS). 1916. 
Oil on canvas, 55x43^" (140 X 110.4 cm.). 
Signed and dated 1. r. "Egon Schiele 1916". 
Collection Dr. and Mrs. Otto Kallir, New York. 
Provenance: Karl Griinwald, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Glaspalast, Munich, 1917. 

Secession, Vienna, 1918, no. 6. 

Neue Galcric, Vienna, 1923, no. 6. 

Internationale Kunstausstellung, Dresden, 1926, 

no. 262. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1941. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York. 1918, no. 8. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1960, 

no. 52. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1964, no. 13. 



Literature: roessler, a. Kritische Fragmente, Vienna, 1918, 
p. 66, f. n. 

karpfen, F. Das Egon-Sehiele-Buch, Vienna. 
1921, pi. 20. 

faistaiier, a. iVeite Malerei in Osterreich, 
Vienna, 1923, ill. 5. 
inirenstein, o., no. 153. 

"Egon Schiele", Art News. New \ork. Decem- 
ber 1-14. 1911, p. 33. 

"Egon Schiele", Art News, New York. Novem- 
ber 1960, p. 12. 



96 




41 



41. THE MILL. 1916. 

Encaustic on canvas, 43^X 55" (110.1 X 140.2 cm.). 
Signed and dated c. 1. "Egon Schiele 1916". 
Collection Niederosterreichisehes Landesmuseum, Vienna. 
Provenance: Gustav Nebehay, Vienna. 

Fritz Lang, Berlin. 
Exhibitions: Glaspalast, Munich, 1917. 

Secession, Vienna, 1918. 
Literature: nirenstein, o., no. 154. 



97 




42 



42. SQUATTING WOMEN. (Left incomplete by the artist.) 
c. 1917. 

Oil on canvas, 43|x 55" (110 X 140 cm.). 
Not signed or dated. 
Collection Dr. Rudolf Leopold, Vienna. 
Provenance: Estate of the artist, Vienna. 

Arthur Stemmer, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Galerie Wiirthle, Vienna, 1925, no. 34. 

Galerie Gurlitt, Berlin, 1926, no. 25. 

M. Goldschmidt and Co., Frankfurt. 1926. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928, no. 76. 

Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., London. 1964, 

no. 26. 
Literature: karpfen, f. Gegenwartskunst: vol. 3, Osterreichi- 

sche Kunst, Vienna, 1923, p. 1 16. 

NIRENSTEIN, O., no. 171. 



98 




43 



43. HOUSES WITH DRYING LAUNDRY. 1917. 
Encaustic on canvas, 43fx 554/' (HOx 140.4 cm.). 
Signed and dated 1. r. "Egon Schiele 1917". 
Collection Mrs. Ala Story, Santa Rarbara, California. 
Provenance: Richard Lanyi, Vienna. 

Siegfried Kulka, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Galerie Gurlitt, Rerlin, 1926. 

M. Goldschmidt and Co., Frankfurt. 1926. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna, 1948, no. 43. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Roston, 1960, 

no. 57. 

University Art Gallery, University of California, 

Rerkeley, 1963, no. 71. 

Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., London, 1964, 

no. 25. 



Literature: gerstenberg, k. "Die Kiinstler und Diese 
Zeit", Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration, Darm- 
stadt, October 1917 - March 1918, p. 115. 

NIRENSTEIN, O., no. 159. 

roessler, A. Erinnerungen an Egon Schiele. 
Vienna, 1948. ill. 

WERNER, A. "Schiele and Austrian Expres- 
sionism", Arts, New York, October 1960, 
ill. p. 50. 

CHIPP, H. B. "A Neglected Expressionist Move- 
ment Viennese 1910 — 1924", Artforum. 
San Francisco. 1963, p. 26. 

nordland, G. "Europe in California", Arts, 
New York, April 1963, p. 17. 
SUTTON, D. "The Lost World of the City 
Sparrow", Apollo, London, October 1964, 
p. 299. 



99 




44 



44. MOTHER WITH TWO CHILDREN. 1917. 
Oil on canvas, 59X 62V' (150X 158.7 cm.). 
Signed and dated 1. c. "Egon Schiele 1917". 
Collection Osterreichische Galerie, Vienna. 
Provenance: Karl Griinwald, Vienna. 

Jenny Steiner, Vienna, 1951. 
Exhibitions: Glaspalast, Munich, 1917. 

Secession, Vienna, 1918, no. 5. 

Biennale, Venice, 1948. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna, 1948, no. 42. 



Osterreichische Galerie. Vienna, 1951, no. 119. 
Palais International des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, 
1958, no. 276. 

Osterreichische Galerie, Vienna. 1959, no. 107. 
Literature: nirenstein, o., no. 158. 

ROESSLER, A. Erinnernngen an Egon Schiele, 
Vienna, 1918. ill. 

READ, H. A Concise History of Modern Painting, 
New York, 1959, ill. p. 30. 



100 




45 



45. RECLINING WOMAN II. 1917. 

Encaustic on canvas, 37x664." (93.9 X 168.3 cm.). 
Signed and dated 1. r. "Egon Schiele 1917". 
Collection Dr. Rudolf Leopold, Vienna. 
Provenance: Karl Griinwald, Vienna. 

Richard Lanyi, A ienna. 

Otto Kranz, Vienna. 

Fritz W olff. Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Ausstellung Osterreichischer Kunst, Stockhoh 

1917. 

Secession, Vienna, 1918. no. 19. 

Galerie W iirthle, Vienna, 1925, no. 3. 

Internationale Ausstellung. Dresden, 

no. 261. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928, no. 6. 

Neue Galerie. Vienna, 1948, no. 48. 

Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., London, 

no. 24. 
Literature: karpfen", F. Das Egon-Schiele-Buch. Vienna, 

1921, pi. 18. 

MRENSTEIN. O.. no. 167. 

ROESSLER, A. Erinnerungen an Egon Schiele, 
Vienna, 1948. ill. 

sutton, D. "The Lost 'World of the City 
Sparrow". Apollo. London. October 1964. 
p. 299. 



1926. 



1964. 



101 




46. THE EDGE OF TOWN. 1917. 

Oil on canvas, 45x57" (114x 145 cm.). 

Signed and dated 1. c. "Egon Schiele 1917"". 

Collection Neue Galerie am Landesmuseum .loanneum, Graz. 

Provenance: Karl Griinwald, Vienna. 

Wolko Gartenberg, Debica. 

Hugo Beinatzik, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Secession, Vienna, 1918, no. 8. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna, 1923, no. 3. 

Galerie Wurtble, Vienna, 1925, no. 3. 
Literature: karpfen, f. Dos Egon-Schiele-Buch, ^ ienna, 

1921, pi. 28. 

NIRENSTEIN, O., HO. 160. 



102 




17. THE FAMILY, c. 1917. 

Encaustic on canvas, 59x63" (150 x 160 cm.). 
Not signed or dated. 

Collection Osterreichische Galerie, Vienna. 
Provenance: Hans Bolder, New York. 
Exhibitions: Secession, Vienna, 1918, no. 15. 

[Cunsthaus, Zurich, 1918, no. 107. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928, no. 79. 

Biennale, Venice, 1948, no. 1 I. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna, 1948, no. 19. 

Osterreichische Galerie, Vienna, 1951 — 52, 

no. 121. 

Secession. \ ienna, 1950. 

Osterreichische Galerie, Vienna, 1959, no. 106. 



Literature: FAISTAUER, A. Neue Malerei in Osterreich, 
Vienna. 1923. pi. 9. 

NIRENSTEIN, O., 110. 169. 

hokssi.kr. \. Iiiiiniiiinwn an Egon Schiele, 
Vienna, 1948. ill. 

buenemann, H. Von Menzel bis Hodler, 1960, 
p. 71. 

werner, a. "Schiele and Austrian Expres- 
sionism", Arts, New York, October 1960, p. 51. 



103 



Y^-SHI 




48 



48. PORTRAIT OF GUIDO ARNOT. 1918. 

Oil on canvas, 55|x43i" (140.6x109.5 cm.). 
Signed and dated 1. r. "Egon Schiele 1918'*. 
Private Collection, Graz. 
Provenance: Guido Arnot, Vienna. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Secession, Vienna, 1918, no. 160. 

Galerie Gurlitt, Berlin, 1926, no. 28. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928, no. 71. 

Kunsthaus, Zurich. 1930. 

Neue Galerie, Vienna, 1948. no. 52. 
Literature: karpfen. f. Das Egon-Schiele-Burh. Vienna, 

1921, pi. 21. 

MKF.NSTKIN. ().. no. 175. 



104 




- 


' 


|- '■•Jafc ■; *"m£m'' 


% 











49 



49. 



PORTRAIT OF THE AUTHOR ROBERT MULLER. 

(Unfinished.) 1918. 

Oil on canvas, 28 X 28" (71 X 71 cm.). 

Not signed or dated. 

Collection Ludwig Blau, Vienna. 

Provenance: Richard Lanyi, Vienna. 

Frau Dr. Czinner, Vienna. 
Exhibitions: Neue Galerie, Vienna, 1948, no. 55. 
Literature: JSIRENSTEIN. O., no. 179. 



50. PORTRAIT OF THE PAINTER PARIS VON GUTERS- 
LOH. 1918. 

Oil on canvas, 55} X 434/ (140.3 X 109.9 cm.). 
Signed and dated 1. r. "'Egon Schiele 1918". 
Collection Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis, 
Minnesota, 1954. 
Provenance: Karl Griinwald, Vienna. 

Richard Lanyi, Vienna. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New \ork. 

The Putnam Dana McMillan Land Company, 

Minneapolis. 
Exhibitions: Secession, Vienna, 1918, no. 159. 

AussteUung Moderner Osterreichischer Kunst in 

den Niederlanden, The Hague, Rotterdam. 

Amsterdam, 1927-28. no. 30. 

Hagenbund, Vienna, 1928, no. 73. 

Kunsthaus, Zurich, 1930. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1941. 

Galerie St. Etienne, New York, 1948, no. 9. 

Women's Club, Minneapolis, 1953. 

\\ alker Art Center. Minneapolis, 1955. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1960, 

no. 66. 
Literature: karpfen. f. Dos Egon-Srhiele-Buch, Vienna, 

1921. pi. 22. 

Wendigen, special volume, "Osterreichische 

Kunst", Amsterdam. 1927. p. 8. 

NIRENSTEIN, O., no. 177. 

"'Egon Schiele", Art Neivs, New York, April 

1948. ill. p. 51. 

ROESSLER, A. Erinnerungen an Egon Schiele, 

Vienna, 1948, ill. 

Davis, R. s. "The Institute Receives Gifts of 

Two Expressionist Paintings", The Minneapolis 

Institute of Arts Bulletin, Minneapolis. Septem- 
ber 1955. ill. 

davis, R. s. "Portrait of Paris von Giitersloh 

bv Egon Schiele in the Minneapolis Institute 

of Arts'*. Art Quarterly, Detroit. 1956, p. 93, 

ill. p. 90. 

selz, P. German Expressionist Painting, Berkeley 

and Los Angeles, 1957, p. 159, pi. 59. 

"The Putnam Dana McMillan Collection". 

The Minneapolis Institute of Arts Bulletin. 

Minneapolis, 1961, pp. 24 — 25, ill. p. 35. 

The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, European 

Paintings, Minneapolis, 1963, p. 74. 

CHIPP, H. B. "A Neglected Expressionist Move- 
ment — Viennese 1910—1924", Artforum, San 

Francisco. 1963. ill. p. 24. 



105 




50 



107 



i;i.!)\ SCHIELE - DRAWINGS 



ALESSANDRA COMINI 



The essence of Schiele's art is his magnificent draftsmanship; a masterful and prolific 
talent for graphic representation. Supplementing the some 200 oil paintings created in his short 
life span are several thousand temperas, watercolors and drawings. The pages of his sketch- 
books abound with compositional projects. To Schiele drawing was like breathing. He drew 
instinctively, continuously and under any condition. He worked with a ferocious speed that 
tolerated no erasures, and with an intensity that was undeterred by a model's chance change 
of pose. 

For Schiele, line functions as the direct transmission of his reactions to inner and outer 
stimuli. The immediacy of this line is most forcibly apparent in the intimacy of his sketchbooks, 
where a compositional tryout or portrait notation may take shape with a few shorthand strokes. 
In the drawings — pencil or watercolor — the spontaneity of graphic rendition is augmented by 
a tectonic marshaling of surfaces. The carefully composed, often "thematic" oils encase Schiele's 
line in vibrant, monumental formalizations. In all three media, whether sketchbook, drawing 
or painting, Schiele's linear style expresses emotional, highly subjective approach. But the character 
of this draftsmanship undergoes significant changes as the artist moves from an initial period 
of consciously exploited reaction (1910 — 1914) toward an increasingly profound interpretation 
(1915—1918). 

The influence of Gustav Klimt's elegant Art Nouveau approach is evident in Schiele's 
early drawings of 1908 and 1909. Works such as the Four Post Card Designs are highly reminiscent 
of klimt in their decorative, almost precious function of line and plane. The strong black-white 
contrasts, large flat surface areas, abstract silhouettes, and division of picture space into architectonic 
oblongs and squares are all devices popular with the progressive Wiener W erkstatte for which the 
post cards were designed. But one year later, at the age of twenty, Schiele suddenly discarded 
this format and initiated an independent and highly original artistic style. This new style was 
based on a radically selective use of line. 



108 



A comparison of two drawings, the first dated 1909 and the second dated 1910. illustrates 
the wide stylistic chasm Schiele crossed in creating his own idiom. Both drawings are portraits 
of fellow- painters. The first, a pencil study for the 1909 oil Portrait of Hans Massmann, is still 
conceived under Khmt's influence. The elegant contour of the seated figure is continued in the 
decorative silhouette of the chair, and both forms join with the geometric forward-bringing division 
of the background to create a pleasing and intricate flat surface pattern which fills the paper to 
its edges. The personality of the sitter is equated to if not overwhelmed by his comfortable clothes 
and surroundings. The soft qualities suggested in the drawing are further enhanced by the use 
of golds, pale yellows, light greens and pinks in the painting. How different is the effect produced 
by the drawing. Portrait of Anton Peschka of 1910. With an economy of means, as though a chill 
winter wind had blown awav all superfluous details. Schiele has set down a slouching, inelegant 
figure that dominates the paper by means of its star contour. The legs are flung apart, the knotted 
hands lie where they have fallen, the body droops, and the dark face broods. There is no setting 
or background. Clothes and flesh alike are streaked with blacks. The great emphasis upon hands 
and face produces a heightened sense of physical presence and contributes to an emotional intensity 
which is completely absent in the polished portrait of Hans Massmann. Schiele's selective line 
has transformed the dream-like quality of Klimt's Art Nouveau into a startling reality. 

This "demasking" approach, which probed and exposed subject matter, whether flower, 
house, or living creature, was applied by Schiele to himself as well. An exhaustive series of self- 
portraits stems from the years 1910 and 1911 in which a new concept of self-portraiture is introduced. 
The Self-Portrait Shrieking of 1910 is a characteristic example. Schiele has shown himself waist 
length, his jacket and shirt open, his left arm thrown back out of the picture, and his head raised 
on a long hose-like neck. From the mouth comes one of the most terrifying shrieks in modern art. 
We might well imagine this as Schiele's answer to Edvard Munch's The Scream, prints of which 
circulated in Vienna and were probably seen by the artist. In Schiele's picture there are no outside 
forces visibly pressing in upon the figure. Here the shriek is the escaping steam of inner forces 
which have come to a furious boil. Color is used exclusively to intensify emotion. The undershirt 
is lavender, the jacket is painted in heavy pressing strokes of purple and red. The skin is tinted 
with reds and orange. The single tooth gleams a malicious white against the red tongue. Underneath 
the wild black eyebrows white has been slapped over the flesh tone, creating a startling effect 
of movement. This is far removed from the traditional portrait of the artist in which the connection 
with his work or his place in society is usually indicated. Here there is no frame of reference except 
self. Nor is the achievement of physical likeness the objective in Schiele's drawing. He is, rather, 
concerned with what happens to his physiognomy as the impact of powerful emotions and sensations 
is registered upon it. Working with a full-length mirror, he captures the exaggerated pantomimes 
of face and body that externalize his inner states. Schiele does not hesitate to exploit the rich 
motif of self. His graphic explorations of the psyche and its visible manifestations parallel the 
contemporary psycho-sexual studies of Otto Weininger and Sigmund Freud. During this period 
Schiele's line is angular and brittle, wiry and tense, hypersensitive to anatomical dictates to the 
point of grotesque exaggerations (but never arriving at the deformation of the German Expressionists). 
His watercolors remain first of all drawings with color added later and away from the model. 
Such brushwork enhancement, especially in 1911 works such as The Artist's Mother Sleeping. 
augmented but never displaced Schiele's graphic realization of subject matter. 

How dependent Schiele was upon the act of drawing is revealed through a drastic personal 
crisis. In the spring of 1912 Schiele was arrested in the small village of Neulengbach. where he 



109 



had been painting for several months, and imprisoned for twenty-four days on charges of immorality 
and seduction. He was locked in a narrow basement cell and, at first, denied not only knowledge 
of the charges against him, but also pencil and paper. "I painted, with roots ripped from the soil 
of myself, as I am, in order not to go really insane. With a trembling finger I bartered for bitter 
spit, and with the help of stains in the plaster I painted landscapes and heads on the walls of my 
cell." Schiele recorded in a diary he kept when finally given drawing materials. The twelve water- 
colors he was permitted to make present a moving documentation of how drawing became bis 
moral support during imprisonment. The first six pictures, beginning with The Single Orange 
lias the Only Light, deal with his immediate surroundings and are based on nature with scrupulous 
detail. Schiele even depicted the initials "M H", carved by some former prisoner on the upper 
horizontal band of the cell door (which are visible there to this day). In this drawing Schiele indicated, 
in very light lines, one of the little landscapes he painted with spit before receiving working 
materials. Six drawings later he could no longer bear to record the oppressive reality of his surroundings. 
(The Door into the Open and Two of My Handkerchiefs.) His thoughts turned inward, upon a vision 
of himself as an unjustly suffering prisoner, and in three consecutive days he drew 7 four self-portraits. 
Contemplation of himself, undistracted by the physical reflection of a mirror image, reached 
depths of introspection, and, as if in sympathetic response, the hard line of 1910 grew softer, less 
aggressive. Heartened by the exorcistic qualities inherent in self-portraiture, Schiele's mood changed 
from the helpless protest of the pitiable creature depicted in the first self-portrait. Hindering 
the Artist is a Crime, It is Murdering Life In the Bud to the positive decision of the last agonized 
self-portrait For My Art and For My Loved Ones I Will Gladly Endure to the End. In the last 
prison watercolor, Trieste Fishing Boat, he draws upon the world of memory for motifs. This 
beautiful picture represents a rare departure from Schiele's method of working directly from 
nature. He has painted something real, but to do so he had to depart from reality, from the 
oppressiveness of his surroundings. The perfection of detail, the vibrant sense of presence, and 
the shimmering colors give triumphant proof of the dimension of Schiele's artistic powers during 
the Neulengbacb confinement and reveal bow he was able to sublimate bis sufferings through 
drawing. 

For several years after the Neulengbach incident Schiele lived the life of a recluse, painting 
landscapes and town scenes in which no people are present, and creating a sad procession of monks, 
hermits and saints. This physical isolation and thematic asceticism are reflected in his draftsmanship. 
A new tendency toward an abstraction of the human figure by means of abbreviation of forms 
into evocative geometric shapes appears. The Recumbent Girl icith Green Cap of 1914 is an excellent 
example of the extremes to which this abstract approach led in 1914. Although still drawing from 
nature, Schiele's delight in tense linear patterns grasps all suggestions of geometricity in the face, 
body and drapes, and countless little areas are commandeered into independent pockets of pure 
linear energy. Erotic elements assume dehumanized aspects as physical characteristics are 
exaggerated for their compositional as well as emotional values. A colored flecking of the skin 
with dry strokes of the brush models the figure. The radical stylization of the face with its blank 
staring eyes introduces a generalized concept that gives Schiele's line a new freedom to organize 
surfaces. 

Personal events in Schiele's life during 1915 — his marriage to Edith Harms and induction 
into the army — paralleled a gradual softening of the extreme stylization observed in the 1914 
drawings. As he sketched the faces of his fellow soldiers and the round, amiable figure of his wife, 
Schiele's line once again changed character. The 1915 Portrait of the Artist's Wife conveys a tender- 



110 



ness of conception which is matched technically by the unforced flow of thick and even lines which 
contain rich coloristic values of their own. The brittle contour line of 1910 has been domesticated 
and mellowed. Schiele's 1916 study of his father-in-law, Herr Harms, displays the same re-humanized 
treatment applied to a male subject. The contorted gestures and grimaces of 1910 have been 
abandoned for a new naturalism: the aggressive penetration into the psyche of the earlier period 
has been exchanged for a serene depiction with emphasis on character. The man. not his temporary 
emotions, is now expressed. 

Three self portraits, dating from 1916, 1917, and 1918, all studies for the monumental 
painting The Family, reveal the final phases through which Schiele's draftsmanship was to pass. 
The first. Self Portrait Squatting I, shows Sehiele nude, squatting on the floor, his legs spread wide 
apart, and fully facing his mirror. The power of his 1910 line now permeates the entire body with 
equal emphasis. All parts partake of the expressiveness of line, from the knobby knee to the 
humping neck as it merges into the shoulder. But the line is no longer limited to outer contour: 
horizontals, arcs and delicate grids spread across all surface areas of the body in anatomical 
reflection and modeling. Schiele's linear conception is now complemented by a conscious use of 
painterly qualities. This new direction is to become the dominating characteristic of Schiele's 
last works. The Self Portrait Squatting II, while still conveying the individual aspects of features 
such as the shoulders and knee, introduces a body silhouette dominated by a sweeping contour 
which imparts equal emphasis to all areas. Line serves still a new function. It is used for formal 
definition rather than expressive content. This is not a drawing of what an individual feels, but 
of how a figure appears in a certain pose. Sehiele does not react to his subject but records it. The 
need to express, so compelling in 1910, has shifted to the how of expression. The painterly approach 
begun in Self Portrait Squatting I is intensified. The plastic volumes of the body are indicated by 
colored dabs of green, red and yellow that fleck the skin. Hair on the legs and arms is not indicated 
by the individual decorative lines of the abstract style of 1914, but by thick strokes of the crayon 
backed by a blur of color. Even the hair of the head, usually depicted by vigorous strokes of the 
brush, partakes of the new modeling treatment: colors are put to work against each other rather 
than simply applied at the same time, thus brown and blue-black indicate dips and risings rather 
than merely texture. The last study for The Family, Self Portrait Squatting III marks the ultimate 
stage of Schiele's draftsmanship. The point of the crayon has been used to render the body silhouette 
in far more general and simplified terms than the 1917 study: then the crayon has been turned 
lengthwise and applied with varying pressures to numerous small areas in tonal strokes. Line has 
been released from its former graphic function and allowed to operate as a coloring agent. 

This final shift toward a painterly approach in which line functions both to define and 
to color coincides with Schiele's increasingly profound interpretations as a portrait painter. The 
monumental simplicity of the 1918 Mother and Child, and the reduction to expressive essentials 
in the 1918 Hand Study for Hugo Roller are cogent testimonials to the basic and determining role 
of Schiele's draftsmanship in his art. 



Ill 




20 



DR1WIMS U THE EXHIBITION 



1. WOMAN IN RED. c. 1908. Watercolor, pencil, 17^x12-}" (45. 2x 31.7 cm.). 
Collection Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien, Vienna. 

2. SELF PORTRAIT. 1909. Crayon, watercolor, 17fxl2V' (45.2 x 31.7 cm.). 
Collection Eberhard W. Kornf'eld, Bern. 

3. SELF PORTRAIT, c. 1909. Crayon, 16x8" (40.5 X 20.2 cm.). 
Collection Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien, Vienna. 

4. DESIGNS FOR POSTCARDS. Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

a. BEARDED MAN. c. 1909. Ink, 64x4" (15.4 X 9.8 cm.). 

b. CHILD WITH NIMBUS IN A FIELD, c. 1909. Ink, 64x4" (15.7 x 10.2 cm.). 

c. TWO MALE FIGURES, c. 1909. Ink. 6^x4" (15. 6x 10.2 cm.). 

d. TWO MONKS WITH HALOS. c. 1909. Ink, 64x4" (15.5x9.9 cm.). 

5. FLOWER GARDEN. 1910. Watercolor, 21^x151" (54x40 cm.). 
Private Collection, \ienna. 

6. MALE NUDE. 1910. Watercolor, 17Jxl2" (44 x 30.5 cm.). 
Collection S. and G. Poppe, Hamburg. 

7. MOTHER AND CHILD. 1910. Watercolor, 20fx31J" (52.8 x 79.5 cm.). 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Serge S. Sabarsky, New York. 

8. NUDE YOUTH, STANDING. 1910. Pencil, 144x10+" (37 x 26.8 cm.). 
Collection Neue Galerie am Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz. 

9. PORTRAIT OF ROSENBAUM. 1910. Pencil, 22^x14+" (56x37 cm.). 
Collection Dr. and Mrs. Ferdinand Eckhardt, Winnipeg. 

10. SELF PORTRAIT SCREAMING. 1910. Gouache, charcoal, 17^x12^" (44x31 cm.). 
Collection Viktor Fogarassy, Graz. 

11. FRANZ WEIGANG. c. 1910. Watercolor. pencil, 17^x124/' (43.8 x 31.1 cm.). 
Collection Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien, Vienna. 

12. MALE NUDE FROM THE BACK. 1911. Watercolor, pencil. 19x124" (48.2 x 32.2 cm.). 
Collection Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien, Vienna. 

13. GIRL IN BLACK STOCKINGS. 1911. Gouache, pencil, 21 + X14V" (54.5 X 37 cm.). 
Collection Christian M. Nebehay, Vienna. 

14. PORTRAIT OF GERTA SCHIELE. 1911. Pencil, 19x12-}" (48.1 x 31.7 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

15. SELF PORTRAIT. 1911. Pencil, ink, watercolor, 21Jxl44/' (55.2 x 36.4 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina. Vienna. 



113 



16. SUN FLOWERS. 1911. Pencil, watercolor, 17x11-}" (43 x 29.3 en..). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

17. TWO NUDES. 1911. Watercolor, pencil, 22£xl4£" (56x37.1 cm.), 
Collection Federica Beer-Monti, New York and Vienna. 

18. WOMAN WITH BLACK APRON. 1911. Watercolor, L9£x 12f" (48.2 x 32 cm.). 
Collection Viktor Fogarassy, Graz. 

19. CROUCHING WOMAN. 1912. Watercolor, 19x12" (48 x 30.5 cm.). 
Collection S. and G. Poppe, Hamburg. 

20. -'HINDERING THE ARTIST IS A CRIME, IT IS MURDERING LIFE IN THE BUD". 1912. 
Pencil, watercolor, 19x12" (48x30 cm.). 

Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

21. "THE SINGLE ORANGE WAS THE ONLY LIGHT". 1912. Pencil, watercolor. 114xm" 
(28.5 x 44.5 cm.). 

Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

22. "THE DOOR INTO THE OPEN". 1912. Pencil, watercolor, 19x12V" (48.2 x 31.7 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

23. TRIESTE FISHING BOAT. 1912. Pencil, watercolor, 124x19" (31.7 x 48.2 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

24. "FOR MY ART AND FOR MY LOVED ONES I WILL GLADLY ENDURE TO THE END". 1912. 
Pencil, watercolor, 19x 124" (48.2 X 31.8 cm.). 

Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, \ ienna. 

25. TREE. 1912. Pencil, watercolor, 181x114/' (46.1 x 29.7 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

26. "TWO OF MY HANDKERCHIEFS". 1912. Pencil, watercolor, 19x121" (48.2 x 31.7 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina. Vienna. 

27. FARM HOUSE. 1913. Watercolor, 12£xl8f" (30.8 X 46.9 cm.). 
Collection Viktor Fogarassy, Graz. 

28. GIRL WITH FLAG 1913. Watercolor, 19X12" (48.2x30.5 cm.). 
Collection Ludwig Blau, Vienna. 

29. SELF PORTRAIT. 1913. Watercolor, I8f X 12+" (47.6 X 31.7 cm.). 
Collection Viktor Fogarassy, Graz. 

30. PORTRAIT OF FRITZ IIAl ER. 1914. Pencil, 17{xl2" (43.8x30.5 cm.). 
Collection S. and G. Poppe. Hamburg, 



114 



31. RECLINING WOMAN WITH GREEN HAT. 1914. Pencil, watercolor, 12|x 19J/' (32.5x 49 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

32. SEATED WOMAN WITH ORANGE CLOTH. 1914. Gouache, pencil, 18fxl2-L" (47.2 x 31.2 cm.). 
Collection Christian M. Nebehay, V ienna. 

33. PORTRAIT OE AN OLD MAN. 1915. Oil on paper, 184X12J;" (47x31 cm.). 
Collection F. R., Graz. 

34. PORTRAIT OF JOHN HARMS. FATHER-IN-LAW OF THE ARTIST. 1916. Pencil. 19x124" (48. 3x 31.7 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

35. SELF PORTRAIT. 1916. Pencil, watercolor. llfxlB" (29.7 X 45.8 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

3d. EDITH, WIFE OF THE ARTIST. 1917. Pencil, watercolor, 18xllf (45.8 x 29.7 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, V ienna. 

37. PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST'S SISTER-IN-LAW. 1917. Watercolor. 17x11" (43x28 cm.). 
Collection Ludwig Rlau. Vienna. 

38. SELF PORTRAIT. 1917. Pencil, watercolor. 18x114" (45.8 X 29.1 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

39. SKETCH OF A FARM HOUSE. 1917. Watercolor, ll + xl7f" (28.5 x 44 cm.). 
Collection V iktor Fogarassy, Graz. 

40. PORTRAIT OF HIS WIFE EDITH, c. 1917. Pencil. 194x124/' (49.5 x 31.2 cm.). 
Collection V iktor Fogarassv, Graz. 

41. CROUCHING WOMAN. 1918. Crayon. 17|xll|" (45 x 29.5 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

42. MOTHER AND CHILD. I'll!',. Charcoal. 18£xllf" (46.5 x 30 cm.). 
Collection Viktor Fogarassy, Graz. 

43. PITCHERS. 1918. Gouache, charcoal, 18x111" (45.8 X 29.7 cm.). 
Collection Christian M. Nebehay, Vienna. 

44. PORTRAIT OF THE AUTHOR RORERT MULLER. 1918. Crayon. 184x12" (47.2 x 30.1 cm.). 
Collection Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien. Vienna. 

45. SELF PORTRAIT. 1918. Crayon. Iljxl84" (30.1 x 47.1 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

46. HOUSES. Pencil, 7jxl24" (19.6x31.6 cm.). 
Collection Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

47. SEATED MALE NUDE, FROM THE BACK. Watercolor, 17^x121" (45x32 cm.). 
Collection Dr. and Mrs. Ferdinand Eckhardt, VV innipeg. 

48. SEATED WOMAN. Pencil. 21^x144" (55.7x37 cm.). 
Collection Neue Galerie am Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz. 




10 






13 



19 



116 




23 





22 



33 




38 





40 



44 



118 



DII{TME.\T:1TI0.\ 



4.1101 i» f:\iiiiiitio\s of rvivi im.s 



Only books, periodicals and exhibitions which refer to specific 
paintings in this exhibition are listed in the documentation section 
of the catalogue. 

The reference for all the Schiele documentation up to 1930 is 
the catalogue raisonne, Egon Schiele, Personlichkeit und Werk, 
Berlin. Leipzig. Vienna. Paul Zsolnay \ erlag. 1930 by Otto 
Nirenstein (Kallir). Dr. Kallir is now bringing his catalogue up 
to date and has graciously assisted with additional docu- 
mentation. 



OSE MAX I \llllll I KINS OF PAINTINGS 



wiener secession. Vienna, March 1918, XLIX. Secession IT ten, 
Schiele room. 

neue galerie, Vienna, 1923, Egon Schiele, Gemalde und Hand- 
zeichnungen. Catalogue introduction by Kurt Rathe, pp. 7 — 15. 

hagenbund. Vienna, 1928, Geddchtnisausstellung zum 10. Todes- 
tag. 

galerie ST. etienne, New York, November 1941. 

xxiv. internazionale biennale di venezia, Venice, 1948. 

galerie st. etienne, New York, April 5 — May 1, 1948, Egon 
Schiele. Catalogue introduction by Joseph von Sternberg. 

NEUE galerie, Vienna, October — November. 1948, Egon Schiele, 
Geduchtnisausslellung zum 30. Todestag. Catalogue foreword 
by Otto Kallir-Nirenstein, pp. 3 — 5. 

gutekunst und klipstein, Bern, September 8 — October 6. 1956, 
Ausstellung Egon Schiele. Catalogue introduction by Otto 
Benesch and Arthur Roessler, pp. 5 — 7, 33 — 35. 

institute of contemporary art, Boston, October 6 — Novem- 
ber 6, 1960 ; galerie st. etienne, New York, November 15 — 
December 15. 1960: J. B. speed museum, Louisville, Janu- 
ary 3 — 31, 1961; Carnegie institute, Pittsburgh, March 1 — 
April 2, 1961; Minneapolis institute of arts, April 19 — 
May 21, 1961, Egon Schiele, 1890—1918. Catalogue introduc- 
tions by Otto Kallir and Thomas M. Messer, n. p. 

Marlborough fine art ltd., London. October 1964, Egon 
Schiele, Paintings, W atercolours, and Drawings. Catalogue 
introduction by Wolfgang Fischer; essay by Rudolf Leopold, 
pp. 5— 16. 



kunstsalon pisco, Vienna, 1909, Xeukunstgruppe Wien. 

Xeukunstgruppe Wien. Budapest. 1911. 

hagenbund, Vienna, 1912. 

wtener secession, Vienna, 1912 — 13. 

kunstsalon golz, Munich. 1913. Kollektivausstellung. 

SON'Derbuntj, Cologne, 1913, Internationale Sonderbundausstellung. 

Grofie Deutsche Kunstausstellung. Diisseldorf. 1913. 

konigsplatz, Munich, 1914, Secession Wien. 

kunstsalon arnot, Vienna, 1914, Kollektivausstellung. 

Ausstellung Osterreichischer Kunst. Stockholm. 1917. 

glaspalast, Munirh, 1917, Secession. 

kunstlerhaus, Vienna, 1925. Kunstschau. 

galerie wurthle, Vienna, 1925. Kollektivausstellung. 

galerie gurlitt, Berlin. 1926, Kollektivausstellung. 

M. goldschmidt and CO., Frankfurt. 1926, Kollektivausstellung. 

galerie wurthle, Vienna, 1926. Kollektivausstellung. 

Internationale Kunstausstellung, Dresden, 1926. 

museum fur kunst und Industrie. Vienna, 1927, Das Werden 

eines Kunstuerks. 
Ausstellung inoderner Osterreichischer Kunst in den Xiederlanden, 

The Hague. Rotterdam. Amsterdam, 1927 — 28. 
kunstlerhaus, \ ienna. 1930, Die Kunst in unserer Zeit. 
kunsthaus, Zurich, 1930. Ausstellung. 

kunsthalle, Diisseldorf, 1930, Osterreichische Malerei 1800 — 1930. 
academy OF FINE arts, Vienna. 1948. Entuicklung der Osterreichi- 

schen Kunst von 1897 bis 1938. 
WIENER secession, Vienna, 1950, Wiener Secession 1900 — 1950. 
osterreichische galerie, Vienna, 1951 — 52, Neueruerbungen 

1947-51. 
woman's club, St. Paul. Minnesota. November — December, 1953. 
walker art center, Minneapolis, February 1 — March 11, 1955, 

Expressionism 1900 — 1955. Catalogue introduction by Sidney 

Simon. 
stedelijk museum, Amsterdam, December 1956; van abbe 

museum, Eindhoven, January' 1957. Kunst uit Oostenrijk. 

Catalogue introduction by \^ erner Hofmann, n. p. 
IV. sao paulo bienal, Sao Paulo, 1957. Introduction by Otto 

Benesch, pp. 101 — 104. 
Palais international des beaux-arts. Brussels, April 17 — 

July 21, 1958, Exposition Lniverselle el Internationale de 

Bruxelles. Catalogue introduction by Em. Langui. 
kunsthalle, Diisseldorf, 1959. Xleislerwerke der Osterreichischen 

Malerei 1800-1930. 
osterreichische galerie, Vienna, October — November 1959. 

Xeueruerbungen 1947 — 59. 
E. and A. silberman galleries. New York, November 3 — 21, 

1959, Exhibition 1959. 
galerie ST. etienne. New York, March 14— April 8, 1961, Klimt, 

Schiele, Kokoschka. Kubin. 
narodni Galerie. Prague, 1961. Rakouske umeni; sbirka umeni. 
metropolitan museum of art. New York. Summer 1962. 

Paintings from Private Collections, Summer Loan Exhibition. 
Zeugnisse der Angst in der Modernen Kunst, Darmstadt, 1963. 
DIM UMENI MESTA BRNO, Brno, 1963, Rakouske umeni XX. stoleti. 
university art gallery, The University of California, Berkeley. 

February 5 — March 10. 1963: pasadena art museum, 

Pasadena, March 19 — April 21, 1963, Viennese Expressionism 

1910—1924. Catalogue introduction by Herschel B. Chipp, 

pp. 7-14. 



119 



PERIODICAL* 



haus DER KUNST, Munich, March 14 — May 10, 1964, Secession 
Europdische Kunst urn die Jahrhundertwende. Catalogue intro- 
duction by Siegfried Wichmann, pp. 1 — 19. 

Wien um 1900, Vienna, June 5 — August 30, 1964, Exhibition of 
painting, sculpture, graphics, organized by the city of 
Vienna; paintings shown at the secession. 

GALERIE ST. etienne, New York, October 17 — November 14, 
1964, Twenty-fifth Anniversary Exhibition. 

THE BALTIMORE museum OF art, Baltimore, October 6 — Novem- 
ber 15, 1964, 1914, An Exhibition of Paintings, Drawings and 
Sculpture. Catalogue introduction by George Boas, Henri 
Peyre, Lincoln F. Johnson, Jr., Gertrude Rosenthal, pp. 
11-30. 



HOOK* 



gutersloh, Paris von Egon Schiele, Vienna, Verlag Briider Rosen- 

baum, 1915. 
roessler, Arthur. Kritische Fragmente, Aufsdtze iiber Osterreichi- 

sche Neukiinstler, Vienna, Richard Lanyi, 1918. 
karpfen, FRITZ. Dos Egon-Schiele-Buch, Vienna, Wiener Graphi- 

sche Werkstatte, 1921. 
karpfen, fritz. Gegenwartskunst; vol. 3, Osterreichische Kunst, 

Vienna, Literaria-Verlag, 1923. 
faistauer, ANTON. Neue Malerei in Osterreich, Betrachtungen eines 

Malers, Vienna, Amalthea-Verlag, 1923. 
nirenstein, otto [Dr. Otto Kallir]. Egon Schiele, Personlichkeit 

und Werk, Berlin, Vienna, Leipzig, Paul Zsolnay Verlag, 1930. 
grohmann, WILL. "Schiele, Egon", U. Thieme-F. Becker, Allge- 

meines Lexikon der Bildenden Kiinstler, vol. XXX, Leipzig, 

Verlag von E. A. Seemann, 1936, p. 59. 
roessler, Arthur. Erinnerungen an Egon Schiele, Vienna, Wiener 

Volksbuchverlag, 1948. This is an expansion of an earlier 

edition, incorporating most of the earlier work; roessler, 

ARTHUR. Erinnerungen an Egon Schiele, Vienna and Leipzig, 

Verlag Carl Konegen, 1922. 
Schmidt, GERHARD. Neue Malerei in Osterreich, Vienna, Verlag 

Briider Rosenbaum, 1956. 
SELZ, peter. German Expressionist Painting, Berkeley and Los 

Angeles, University of California Press, 1957. 
READ, Herbert. A Concise History of Modern Painting, New York, 

Frederick A. Praeger, 1959. 
buenemann, Hermann. Von Menzel bis Hodler, (Die Blauen 

Bucher), Konigstein i. T., 1960. 
mitsch, erwin. Egon Schiele, Salzburg, 1961. 
beeren, w. A. L. Beeldverhaal, Een weg door de moderne kunst, 

Amsterdam, Arbeiderspars, 1962. 
breicha, otto and fritsch, Gerhard, eds. Finale und Auftakt 

Wien 1898-1914, Salzburg, Otto Miillcr Verlag, 1964. 



r[oessler]. a[rthur]. "Egon Schiele", Bildende Kiinstler, 

Monatsschrift fur Kiinstler und Kunstfreunde, herausgegeben 

von Arthur Roessler, Vienna and Leipzig, vol. 3, 1911, 

p. 104 ff. 
GERSTENBERG, KURT. "Die Kiinstler und Diese Zeit", Deutsche 

Kunst und Dekoration, Darmstadt, vol. XLI, October 1917 — 

March 1918, pp. 113-116. 
Wendingen, special volume "Osterreichische Kunst", Amsterdam, 

1927. 
Mededeelingen II van den Dienst voor Kunsten en Wetenschappen 

der Gemeente 's Gravenhage, no. 4, April 1928, pp. 127 — 128. 
"Schiele" (Review of exhibition at Galerie St. Etienne), Art News, 

New York, vol. XI, no. 16, December 1 — 14, 1941, p. 33. 
"Egon Schiele" (Review of exhibition at Galerie St. Etienne), 

Art News, New York, vol. XLVII, no. 2, April 1948, p. 51. 
ankwicz von kleehoven, hans. "Egon Schiele", Das Kunstwerk, 

Baden-Baden, no. 3, 1951, pp. 22-29. 
davis, RICHARD s. "The Institute Receives Gifts of Two Expressio- 
nist Paintings", The Minneapolis Institute of Arts Bulletin, 

XLIV, Minneapolis, vol. 33, no. 9, September 1955. 
davis, RICHARD s. "Portrait of Paris von Gutersloh by Egon 

Schiele in the Minneapolis Institute of Arts", Art Quarterly, 

Detroit, vol. 19, no. 1, 1956, p. 93. 
"Exhibition 1959" (Review), Art News, New York, vol. 58, no. 7, 

November 1959, p. 13. 
werner, Alfred. "Schiele and Austrian Expressionism", Arts, 

New York, vol. 35, no. 1, October 1960, pp. 46 — 51. 
"Egon Schiele" (Review of exhibition at Galerie St. Etienne), 

Art News, New York, vol. 59, no. 7, November 1960, p. 12. 
"The Putnam Dana McMillan Collection", The Minneapolis 

Institute of Arts Bulletin, Minneapolis, vol. 50, no. 4, December 

1961, pp. 24-25. 
SELVIG, FORREST, ed. European Paintings, Minneapolis Institute 

of Arts, Minneapolis, 1963. 
CHIPP, herschel B. "A Neglected Expressionist Movement — 

Viennese 1910 — 1924", Artforum, San Francisco, vol. 1, no. 9, 

1963, pp. 22-27. 
zemina, jaromir. "Osterreichische Kunst des 20. Jahrhunderts 

in der CSSR", Alte und Moderne Kunst, Vienna, vol. 8, 

no. 66-67, March- April, 1963, pp. 48-49. 
nordland, GERALD. "Europe in California", Arts, New York, 

vol. 37, no. 7, April 1963, pp. 16-17. 
Werner, ALFRED. "Rediscovering Austrian Art", Arts, New York, 

vol. 38, no. 7, April 1964, pp. 56 — 60. 
hamburger, MICHAEL. "Egon Schiele 1: The Background" and 

BENESCH, otto, "Egon Schiele 2: The Artist", Studio Inter- 
national, London, vol. 168, no. 858, October 1964, pp. 

168-175. 
SUTTON, denys. "The Lost World of the City Sparrow", Apollo, 

London, vol. LXXX, no. 32, October 1964, pp. 298-300. 



THE SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM 



STAFF 



Director 



Thomas M. Messer 



Curator Lawrence Alloway 

Associate Curator Louise Averill Svendsen 

Assistant Curator Daniel Robbins 

Research Fellows Carol Fuerstein and Rose Carol Washton 

Librarian Mary Joan Hall 



Public Affairs 

Membership 

Registrar 

Conservation 

Photography 

Custodian 



Everett Ellin 

Carol Tormey 

Kathleen IF. Thompson 

Orrin Riley and Saul Fuerstein 

Robert E. Mates 

Jean Xceron 



Business Administrator 



Glenn H. Easton, Jr. 



Administrative Assistant 
Office Manager 
Purchasing Agent 
Sales Supervisor 
Ihi ilding Superintendent 
Head Guard 



Viola H. Gleason 
Agnes R. Connolly 
Elizabeth M. Funghini 
Joseph D. Griffin, Jr. 
Peter G. Loggia 
Fred C. Mahnken 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CREDITS Vladimir Fyman, Prague: Schiele, no. 16 

Robert E. Mates, New York: Klimt, nos. 9, 19; Schiele, no. 2; 

Klimt drawings nos. 2. 14, 20: Schiele drawings nos. 10, 13,40 
Francis G. Mayer, New York: Klimt, no. 15 
0. E. Nelson, New York: Schiele. no. 35 
E. Pezdica, Vienna: Klimt, no. 16 
Julius Scherb, Vienna: Klimt, nos. 1. 10 
I IhtIi.hiI I'meger. Hamburg: Schiele drawing, im. 19 

Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Klimt, no. 6 
Galerie St. Etienne, New York: Klimt, nos. 2, 3, 13, 22, 24; 

Schiele nos. 1, 10, 12, 21, 25, 33, 40 
Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., London: Schiele nos. 3, 26, 28, 30, 34 
Marlborough-Gerson Gallery, New York: Schiele, no. 19 
The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis: Schiele, no. 50 
The Museum of Modern Art, New York: Klimt, no. 14 
Narodni Galerie, Prague: Klimt, nos. 8, 11: Schiele, no. 15 
Osterreichische Galerie, Vienna: Schiele, nos. 8, 16. 17, 42, 44, 47 
The Winnipeg Art Gallery. Winnipeg: Klimt drawing, no. 5 



The following color plates were lent by: Mr. and Mrs. Frederick M. Mayer, New York: Schiele, no. 37 

Mrs. Ala Story, Santa Rarbara, California: Schiele. no. 43 
Galerie St. Etienne, New York: Klimt, no. 3; Schiele, no. 32 
Galerie Welz, Vienna: Klimt, nos. 12, 17 

Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna: Klimt, no. 7 R (detail) 
Kulluramt der Stadt Wien: Klimt. no. 20; Schiele, no. 13 



Exhibition 65/1 February — April, 1965 

3.000 copies of this catalogue, designed by Herbert Matter 

have been printed by Briider Rosenbaum 

in February 1965 

for the Trustees of The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation 

on the occasion of the exhibition 

"Gustuv Klimt and Egon Schiele" 



THE SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM, NEW YORK